Ordinarily yes. But for a bankrupt it is very different, and not very likely that the debt he owes you will be paid.
The bankruptcy notice will have a deadline for making any claims. Proof of claim is a form you fill yourself, you don't need a lawyer, but you have to pay a small fee to have your claim considered. The form can usually be downloaded from the court website. What is left after proceedings are paid for is given to the people with a valid claim, but what are called secure claims come first, these would be mortgages or bank loans. Chances of you getting anything are pretty slim, simply because there probably wont be enough money left by the time it is your turn but you can always try.