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Operation Managment

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Operation Managment

Postby chozai65 » Tue Nov 22, 2016 7:37 pm

Dear Sir, pls answer these s as soon as possible i have exam from 1dec. Q 1)  Does MRP lead to reduction in inventory cost. Justify your answer?

Q 2) Why is R&D a key factor in productivity improvement. Name some ways in which R&D contributes to productivity improvement?

Q 3) Discuss with suitable, the process launching a new product in the market

and pls tell me when you are availble on net.....
Posts: 39
Joined: Fri Apr 01, 2011 7:40 am

Operation Managment

Postby washington » Fri Nov 25, 2016 8:59 pm

Dear Sir, pls answer these s as soon as possible i have exam from 1dec. Q 1)  Does MRP lead to reduction in inventory cost. Justify your answer?

Q 2) Why is R&D a key factor in productivity improvement. Name some ways in which R&D contributes to productivity improvement?

Q 3) Discuss with suitable, the process launching a new product in the market

and pls tell me when you are availble on net.....
Posts: 39
Joined: Wed May 22, 2013 10:36 am

Operation Managment

Postby Luiginw » Fri Nov 25, 2016 10:14 pm






Q 1) Does MRP lead to reduction in inventory cost. Justify your answer?

MRP  is an on-line materials management information system, WHICH  the  users can obtain and/or update the status of all materials instantly using the forms provided over the ONLINE . The system is used for configuration material management for As Built/Maintained, Electronic Data Interchange, Failure Tracking and Operational Use Recording, materials and Inventory Management, MMIS Process, Parametric Data, Project Setup, Reporting SYstems and Work Flow

Supports -on-line entry of purchase order requisitions that can be automatically converted into purchase orders. [ontime  delivery  and  hence  reduction  in excess  inventory]


-Edit purchase order data entry for valid vendor number, item, and account codes. [reduction  in  error  on ordering  and  hence  control over  the  invntory]


-Support automatic assignment of purchase order numbers. [no  delays  in  ordering  and  no  excess inventory]


- Provide on-line inquiry into all purchase orders for a particular item.

[control   on  orders, and  hence  control  on  inventory]


-Provide audit trail of changes made to purchase orders.

[control   on  orders, and  hence  control  on  inventory]


- Provide interface via modem to vendors' computers for electronic order entry to the suppliers.

[monitors  orders  and  hence  control  over  the  inventory]


-Support the combining of requisitions from several  departments onto one purchase order.

[control   on  orders, and  hence  control  on  inventory]


-Allow tracking of due dates specified by PO or line item. [control   on  orders, and  hence  control  on  inventory]


-Support selection of orders for specific buyers with user-defined criteria(i.e. certain vendors, type of PO such as stock, non-stock, etc.).

[matches  order / supplier  and  hence  control  the  flow  of  order

and  control  the  inventory]


-Allow items to be defined as department chargeable. -Support on-line receiving at point of receipt.

-Provide ability to communicate receiving problems to purchasing and/or accounts payable.

[allocates  orders/ receipts   and  hence  the  direct  control  of  inventory]


-Print daily receipts report showing items, quantities, vendors, and totals.

-Print receipt exception report of variances from P.O. in item number, quantity, or units of measure.

[controls  the  inventory  points  through  receipts ]


-Provide inventory control functions for stock and non-stock items. -Maintain current inventory quantities in real time when items are issued, returned, received or transferred.

[controls  inventory  using   real time   movements ]


-Support on-line inquiry into item status of quantities on hand and on order.

[providing  timely  information  for  better  management  of  inventory]


-Support entry of charges and credits for items used(or not used) by users from PAR, floor, or exchange cart.

- Calculate inventory item cost using the average cost method.

-Allow departments to order supplies on-line and print requisitions at inventory locations.

-Print stock usage report of past 12 months and YTD showing quantities and dollar volume by item and department.

[provides  timely  cost  information  and  hence  better  inventory  control]


- Track and report trends for item usage.

-Track item shelf life based on purchase or expiration date and print item obsolescence report.

-Support maintenance of a purchase contract data base.

-Automatically alert purchasing or A/P operator of a price protected item.(e.g. message on screen and/or prompt the operator doing a price change).

[provides  tracking  reports  on  purchases/ usages  and  hence  better  control.]


-Calculate  standard markup policy and actual purchase price.

-Produce bar code labels for  charge items.

-Record department  charges using a bar code reader.

[provides  times  records  for better  management  of  inventory]


-Interface to the company  information system to retrieve  manufacturing  information from the  system.

-Provide activity statistics including number of lines purchased by buyer.

-Provide activity statistics including number of lines received.

-Provide complete turnkey on-site implementation and project management support.

-Provide on-site training to users.

-Provide access to system maintained data element definitions within report writer software.

-Provide ability to down load data into popular PC spreadsheet, database and word processing file formats. -Support interface to bar code readers. -Provide ability for system administrator(or other authorized user) to modify screen layouts and flow with minimal programming effort. -Supply all computer program source code on media(e.g. tape, CD) to user. [provide  timely  information /  access for  better  management

of  inventory   and  hence  savings.

==================================================== ########################################################

Q 2) Why is R&D a key factor in productivity improvement. Name some ways in which R&D contributes to productivity improvement?

Technological change is an important determinant of long-run productivity growth and therefore of increases in living standards over time. Advances in technology arise from innova- tion, which is the process of inventing new products, improving existing products, and reduc- ing the cost of producing existing goods and services. Research and development(R&D) is the term applied to the efforts of scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, inventors, and even crackpots who develop new knowledge or devise better ways of doing things and then reap the rewards when they are successful

Traditionally, R&D has been divided into three categories: basic research, applied research, and development. 1.Pure basic research is experimental and theoretical work that is undertaken not to reap long-term benefits but to advance the state of knowledge. 2 .Applied research is original work to acquire new knowledge that is undertaken with a spe- cific application in view. It aims to determine possible uses for the findings of basic re- search or to determine new ways of achieving specific, predetermined objectives. 3.Experimental development is systematic work using existing knowledge gained from re- search or practical experience that is directed toward producing new materials, products, or devices; installing new processes, systems, or services; or substantially improving what has been produced or installed in the past. Development makes up the largest share of private R&D spending: development averaged about 71 percent, followed by applied research(23 percent) and basic 6 percent.



-new  products  which improves volume and  hence  the  productivity.

-new innovations in  products, more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-new  modifications in  products,more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-product  diversification in  products,more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-product  development in  products, more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-new ''bill  of lading''  helps  the  production, more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-new  process in  production,more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-new  technology  in products, more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

-new  technology  in  production,more sales/ more  volume/ and  hence  productivity.

etc etc


Q 3) Discuss with suitable, the process launching a new product in the market


*Statement of company objective.    *Statement of product idea.    *Judgment evaluation of merit.    *Profile of products known on the market. [CEO / MARKETING DIRECTOR / MANUFACTURING [R&D]  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION]

----------------------------------------------------------------------    *Survey of product ingredients, design standards,     general technology of the field.    *Analysis of competitive product claims. [MARKETING / MANUFACTURING [R&D ]DECIDE  THE  FINAL DECISION]  

-----------------------------------------------------------------    *Analysis of competitive advertising expenditures.    *Areas of brand share/volume history.  [MARKETING / PRODUCT MANAGERS DECIDE  THE  FINAL DECISION]    

---------------------------------------------------------------------    *Survey of traditional channels of distribution and     other distribution opportunities.    *Survey of general selling practices, promotional      allowance buying standards.    *Survey of specific federal and state legal problems     in reference to ingredients, sales practices, controls.


-----------------------------------------------------------------    *Survey to determine marketing opportunity area.    *Cyclical, seasonal, and long term marketing considerations.    *Product class profile study.    *Survey of potential customer interest in new product.


---------------------------------------------------------------------    *Definition  of  the selected market.                                                      *Preliminary opportunity estimate.




*Estimation of period of product exclusivity. *Research of customer satisfaction and use habits of current products.



*Product concept screening. *Analysis of sizes, types required. *Investigation of additional sales outlets government, export,       institutional, premiums. *Report of finding and indicated opportunities.




*Request for Planned Development Programme, with estimated investment and timetable. *Approval of research and development budget.


------------------------------------------------- *Initial design/formulation of product.



*Copyrights or patents. Preparation of product platform. *Securement of required government clearances. [MARKETING / LEGAL DEPARTMENTS  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION]


*Initial costing based on optimum manufacturing levels. *Determination of local tax, licensing, and other financial considerations. *Performance and efficiency tests. *Independent laboratory/engineering analysis of prototypes. [MANUFACTURING [ R&D] / PRODUCT  MANAGEMENT  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION]


*Preparation of copy platform. *Panel evaluation of prototype product. *Forecast of volume potential. *Customer testing/opinion



*Determination of plant capacity and facilities availability.






*Plant location and transportation considerations. *Basis of appropriation. [MANUFACTURING / FINANCE  MAKE THE  FINAL DECISION.


*Development of media plan.

*Decision on manufacturer association?identification on/with product. *Creation of brand name possibilities. *Legal search of brand name possibilities. *Registration of trademark, copyright brand name. *Development of basic customer selling theme. *Approval of package design(and inserts). *Preparation of instructions/directions to conform. *Adoption of media philosophy, based on selling theme, budgetary consideration, coverage of prospects, and availability. [MARKETING / SALES  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION.


*Determination of labour availability. *Study of labour or union regulations. *Determination of raw material commitments and availability. *Determination of special tooling and equipment. [MANUFACTURING/ FINANCE  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION]



*Prediction of competitive reaction to new product.

*Setting of test area sales goals ? share, penetration, unit and dollar volume. *Determination of introductory test area timing. *Determination of service and repair problems and facilities. *Sales representative recruitment. Sales training. [MARKETING / SALES  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION ]


*Manufacturing pilot run. Approval of test area production. *Shipping, storage, and packing tests. *Plan to meet competitive reaction. *Finalisation of test areas. [MARKETING/ SALES / MANUFACTURING  MAKE  THE  FINAL DECISION]


*Forecast of P/L limits of successful venture and of unsuccessful write?off. *Test area simulation of national campaign concept.

*Determination of test area total appropriation. [MARKETING / FINANCE  MAKE  THE  FINAL  DECISION]


*Preparation of media merchandising. Preparation of trade   selling sheets.

*Determination of educational plan and appropriation. *Preparation of customer educational materials. *Determination of publicity plan and appropriation. *Preparation of introductory publicity materials. *Determination of sales promotion plan and appropriation. *Approval of test area commercial plan and insertion schedule. *Setting of sales quotas. *Establishment of sales force incentives, bonuses, premiums. *Establishment of trade incentives ? buying allowances, contests. *Commission of product printed material. *Trade sales kick?off. *Advertising kick?off. *Survey of trade performance in test area. *Research on test area users. *Analysis of factory sales data from test area. *Programme performance reports in test area ? adjust to meet standards. *Test area evaluation. *Definition of special line management attention or policy changes required in large scale marketing. *Recommendation for major expansion.



6.      MARKETING    * Turn over to appropriate product manager.


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