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Management Functions And Behaviour

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Management Functions And Behaviour

Postby naseem » Wed Nov 16, 2016 10:46 pm

Express the various models of decision making process. Describe the models which is most suitable to your organization of any organization your are familiar with and why?

ANSWER: MAMTA,

HERE IS SOME  USEFUL  MATERIAL.

REGARDS

LEO LINGHAM

========================================

Models of Decision Making

1.

• The Rational Model

– Consists of a structured four-step sequence:

• identifying the problem

• generating alternative solutions

• selecting a solution

• implementing and evaluating the solution

2.

Simon’s Normative Model

- Based on premise that decision making is not

rational

- Decision making is characterized by

* limited information processing

* use of rules of thumb or shortcuts

* satisficing

3.

Assets of Group Decision

Making

• Groups can accumulate more knowledge and facts

• Groups have a broader perspective and consider more

alternative solutions

• Individuals who participate in decisions are more satisfied

with the decision and are more likely to support it.

• Group decision making processes serve an important

communication function as well as a useful political

function.

4.

Liabilities of Group Decision

Making

• Groups often work more slowly than individuals.

• Groups decisions involve considerable compromise that

may lead to less than optimal decisions.

• Groups are often dominated by one individual or a small

clique, thereby negating many of the virtues of group

processes.

• Overreliance on group decision making can inhibit

management’s ability to act quickly and decisively when

necessary.

Individual vs. Group Decision

Making

• In establishing objectives, groups are probably superior to

individuals because of the greater amount of knowledge

available to groups.

• In identifying alternatives, the individual efforts of group

members encourage a broad search in various functional

areas of the organization.

• In evaluating alternatives, the collective judgement of the

group, with its wider range of viewpoints, seems superior

to that of the individual decision maker.

===============================================

THE  COMPANY  USING  THE  RATIONAL  APPROACH.

Basic Guidelines  Decision Making

1. Define the problem

This is often where people struggle. They react to what they think the problem is. Instead, seek to understand more about why you think there's a problem. Defining the problem:(with input from yourself and others)

Ask yourself and others, the following questions: a. What can you see that causes you to think there's a problem? b. Where is it happening?

c. How is it happening?

d. When is it happening?

e. With whom is it happening?(HINT: Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?" When we're stressed, blaming is often one of our first reactions. To be an effective manager, you need to address issues more than people.)

f. Why is it happening?

g. Write down a five-sentence description of the problem in terms of "The following should be happening, but isn't ..." or "The following is happening and should be: ..." As much as possible, be specific in your description, including what is happening, where, how, with whom and why.(It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods. Also see http://www.managementhelp.org/research/research.htm.

Defining complex problems:

a. If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps a-f until you have descriptions of several related problems.

Verifying your understanding of the problems:

a. It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else.

Prioritize the problems:

a. If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you should address first. b. Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems. Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. For example, if you're continually answering "urgent" phone calls, then you've probably got a more "important" problem and that's to design a system that screens and prioritizes your phone calls.

Understand your role in the problem:

a. Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others. For example, if you're very stressed out, it'll probably look like others are, too, or, you may resort too quickly to blaming and reprimanding others. Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem, you may ignore the accountabilities of others.

----------------------------------------------

2. Look at potential causes for the problem

a. It's amazing how much you don't know about what you don't know. Therefore, in this phase, it's critical to get input from other people who notice the problem and who are effected by it. b. It's often useful to collect input from other individuals one at a time(at least at first). Otherwise, people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems.

c. Write down what your opinions and what you've heard from others.

d. Regarding what you think might be performance problems associated with an employee, it's often useful to seek advice from a peer or your supervisor in order to verify your impression of the problem.

e.Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why.

---------------------------------------------------- 3.Define the Goal or Objective

In a sense, every problem is a situation that prevents us from achieving previously determined goals. If a personal goal is to lead a pleasant and meaningful life, then any situation that would prevent it is viewed as a problem. Similarly, in a business situation, if a company objective is to operate profitably, then problems are those occurrences which prevent the company from achieving its previously defined profit objective. But an objective need not be a grand, overall goal of a business or an individual. It may be quite narrow and specific. "I want to pay off the loan on my car by May," or "The plant must produce 300 golf carts in the next two weeks," are more limited objectives. Thus, defining the objective is the act of exactly describing the task or goal. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem

a. At this point, it's useful to keep others involved(unless you're facing a personal and/or employee performance problem). Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. It's critical when collecting the ideas to not pass any judgment on the ideas -- just write them down as you hear them. -------------------------------------------------------------

5. Select an approach to resolve the problem When selecting the best approach, consider:

a. Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?

b. Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Are they affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach?

c. What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Plan the implementation of the best alternative(this is your action plan)

a. Carefully consider "What will the situation look like when the problem is solved?"

b. What steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem? What systems or processes should be changed in your organization, for example, a new policy or procedure? Don't resort to solutions where someone is "just going to try harder". c. How will you know if the steps are being followed or not?(these are your indicators of the success of your plan)

d. What resources will you need in terms of people, money and facilities? e. How much time will you need to implement the solution? Write a schedule that includes the start and stop times, and when you expect to see certain indicators of success. f. Who will primarily be responsible for ensuring implementation of the plan?

g. Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan.

h. Communicate the plan to those who will involved in implementing it and, at least, to your immediate supervisor.

(An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continually observation and feedback.) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Monitor implementation of the plan

Monitor the indicators of success: a. Are you seeing what you would expect from the indicators?

b. Will the plan be done according to schedule? c. If the plan is not being followed as expected, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not

One of the best ways to verify if a problem has been solved or not is to resume normal operations in the organization. Still, you should consider:

a. What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? Consider changes to policies and procedures, training, etc. b. Lastly, consider "What did you learn from this problem solving?" Consider new knowledge, understanding and/or skills. c. Consider writing a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort, and what you learned as a result. Share it with your supervisor, peers and subordinates

=======================================================

THE  ORGANIZATION  I   AM   ASSOCIATED  WITH

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a -a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products

-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]

-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly

-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/

as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.

-the  company employs  about  235  people.

-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments

*marketing

*manufacturing

*sales

*finance/ administration

*human resource

*customer  service

*distribution

*warehousing/  transportation

*TQM  

==============================================

THE  COMPANY  ANALYSES  THE  FOLLOWING   DATABASE

AND  APPLYS   THE  PROBELM  SOLVING/ DECISION MAKING   APPROACH   /   FINALIZES   THE  PLAN.

1. External Assessment

Areas for opportunities and threats

* Markets [ what  is  the market  situation, which is forcing the change requirements *Customers [ how can service the customer -internal / external -better .          

* Industry  [ is  the  industry  trend ]

* Competition [ is  it the  competitive situation       *Factors of  business [ causing  the change]

* Technology [ is  it  technology  change ]

2. Internal Assessment

Areas  for strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to success

ORGANIZATION DIMENSIONS *Culture  [ is the  working  culture  change ]

* Organization [  is the  organization  demanding  change ] * Systems  [ is it  the  systems change ] * Management practices  [ change in  managemement process]

OTHER KEY DIMENSIONS

*Cost?efficiency[  is it for  cost efficiency ]

* Financial  performance  [ is  it for  financial  performance improvement ]

* Quality [ is  it for  quality  performance improvement *Service [ is  it for  service   performance improvement *Technology[ is  it for  technology   performance improvement * Market segments [ is  it for  sales  performance improvement * Innovation[ is  it for    performance improvement *new products[ is  it for new product   performance improvement *Asset condition[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement *productivity[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement 3. Source  Strategic  objectives  and  programs

The critical issues that must be addressed if the organization Is  to  succeed Strengths

Weaknesses   Opportunities   Threat

PRIORITY   ISSUES

FROM  THE  ABOVE , DETERMINE   THE  CORE  ISSUES

WHICH  NEEDS  TO  SOLVED  WITH  YOUR  INVESTMENT.

STRATEGIC  PROGRAMS

FROM  THE  ABOVE  CORE  ISSUES , DETERMINE  YOUR

STRATEGIC  PROGRAMS.  Mission  STATEMENT VISION    STATEMENT   Your CORE  PURPOSE      Your   CORE   OBJECTIVES    Your   Core markets;   Your  CORE  strategic thrusts.

BUSINESS DEFINITION:

The arena of products, services, customers, technologies, distribution methods, and geography in which you'll compete to get results.   VALUES:   Desired attitudes and behavior toward internal and external stakeholders that will yield the culture and business results you want and that you will execute and turn into action through

-policy, -programs, -processes,

-procedures, -personnel selection.

­

levels and tiers of strategies

OVERALL FINANCIAL POSTURE

Grow; hold; milk; get out

PRIORITIES AND POSTURES

(Grow; hold; milk)

Market; business unit; product/services

Internal development

Divest

Restructure

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Cost /Value/ differentiation

EXTERNAL STRATEGIES

Product      Convenience

Service      Image

Target customer      Geography

Distribution      Product design

Delivery      Quality

Value      Reliability

Pricing      Advertising/promotion

INTERNAL STRATEGIES

People/skills / Facilities

Organizational /   Product

structure    /         development

Management style   /Incentives/rewards

Training      Spending

Equipment      Sourcing/          manufacturing

technology          /    Systems

R&D          /   Service

FINANCING        /  Quality    Strategy Statement Content

v Priorities and Posture   Business unit   Market   Product   Strategic thrust/competitive advantage   External strategies   Internal strategic thrust   Internal strategies   Strategic fixes

8. Strategic

Program Content

LEADERSHIP: who

OBJECTIVES

KEY STEPS: who, what, when

FINANCIAL AND STRATEGIC

GAIN AND COST

PEOPLE: numbers and skills

COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS:

People and organizational units outside your control who must contribute

LEVERAGE: the high leverage individuals and units who must contribute at lower levels Strategic

?Accountability~/Reviews

QUARTERLY: Programs and strategic numbers' progress

INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES:

Performance appraisal

REWARDS AND CONSEQUENCES: Based on strategic performance of teams and individuals

MONITORING  SYSTEM

=============================================

THE  COMPANY  ARRIVES  AT  THE  FOLLOWING DECISIONS   AT  THE  END  OF   THE  SESSIONS:

1.REVENUE BUDGET.

2.GROSS  PROFIT  BUDGET.

3.NET PROFIT  BUDGET.

4.SALES  TOTAL  FORECAST.

5.SALES  BY  PRODUCTS.

6.OPERATIONAL  EXPENSES  BUDGET.

7.FIXED  EXPENSES  BUDGET.

8.PRODUCTIVITY  IMPROVEMENT  %

9.PROFITABILITY  INCREMENT  %

10. RETURN  ON  INVESTMENT.

==============================================

THE  ONLY  CHANGE  I  WOULD  MAKE

-seek  more  time  for  this  workshop  exercise,

as  we  often  work  in  tight  time  frame.

===========================================

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

Dear Sir kindly help me in two more question. 1)Write an essay on the process of change and enumerates how it is carried out in an organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

2)Define organization diagnosis. Discuss different method of organizational analysis and cite how it is carried out in your organization or any organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.
naseem
 
Posts: 49
Joined: Sat Apr 02, 2011 2:23 pm

Management Functions And Behaviour

Postby xing » Sat Nov 19, 2016 9:22 am

MAMATA,

HERE  IS  SOME  USEFUL  MATERIAL.

REGARDS

LEO  LINGHAM

===================================

1)Write an essay on the process of change and enumerates how it is carried out in an organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

What is change management?

Change management is a set of ideas, strategies, and skills that can be applied to engage change effectively. These may be applied •   in planning for change •   in implementing change •   in supporting continuous improvement following change What kinds of change benefit from using change management?

Change management methods may be applied to any type of organizational change, including departmental mergers, technology implementation, creating team-based organizations and professional development. It may be helpful to think about change management methods on two levels: The first level of change management is generic enough to apply to any type of change, whether it's the creation of a new department or the implementation of a new technology. At this generic level, change management methods are mostly targeted at understanding the human response to change and creating effective strategies for engaging people to achieve change. The second level of change management includes methods that are specific to a particular change. For example, in technology implementations, specific actions include establishing and communicating the business case for change, ongoing relationship building, communication and training for affected staff, redesigning  business processes, and creating and sustaining groups to manage the project. While some of these activities apply to other types of change, this collection forms a boilerplate for technology implementation. OTHERS  ARE -management development  programs

-Organization  culture change

-OD  interventions

-organization  restructuring

etc etc

====================================================================== The Change Management  Process The Change Process as “Unfreezing, Changing and Refreezing” The process of change has been characterized as having three basic stages: unfreezing, changing, and re-freezing. What is useful about this framework is that it gives rise to thinking about a staged approach to changing things. Looking before you leap is usually sound practice. What is not useful about this framework is that it does not allow for change efforts that begin with the organization in extremis(i.e., already “unfrozen”), nor does it allow for organizations faced with the prospect of having to “hang loose” for extended periods of time(i.e., staying “unfrozen”). In other words, the beginning and ending point of the unfreeze-change-refreeze model is stability — which, for some people and some organizations, is a luxury. For others, internal stability spells disaster. A tortoise on the move can overtake even the fastest hare if that hare stands still. The Change Process as Problem Solving and Problem Finding A very useful framework for thinking about the change process is problem solving. Managing change is seen as a matter of moving from one state to another, specifically, from the problem state to the solved state. Diagnosis or problem analysis is generally acknowledged as essential. Goals are set and achieved at various levels and in various areas or functions. Ends and means are discussed and related to one another. Careful planning is accompanied by efforts to obtain buy-in, support and commitment. The net effect is a transition from one state to another in a planned, orderly fashion. This is the planned change model. The word “problem” carries with it connotations that some people prefer to avoid. They choose instead to use the word “opportunity.” For such people, a problem is seen as a bad situation, one that shouldn’t have been allowed to happen in the first place, and for which someone is likely to be punished — if the guilty party(or a suitable scapegoat) can be identified. For the purposes of this paper, we will set aside any cultural or personal preferences regarding the use of “problem” or “opportunity.” From a rational, analytical perspective, a problem is nothing more than a situation requiring action but in which the required action is not known. Hence, there is a requirement to search for a solution, a course of action that will lead to the solved state. This search activity is known as “problem solving.” From the preceding discussion, it follows that “problem finding” is the search for situations requiring action. Whether we choose to call these situations “problems”(because they are troublesome or spell bad news), or whether we choose to call them “opportunities”(either for reasons of political sensitivity or because the time is ripe to exploit a situation) is immaterial. In both cases, the practical matter is one of identifying and settling on a course of action that will bring about some desired and predetermined change in the situation. The Change Problem At the heart of change management lies the change problem, that is, some future state to be realized, some current state to be left behind, and some structured, organized process for getting from the one to the other. The change problem might be large or small in scope and scale, and it might focus on individuals or groups, on one or more divisions or departments, the entire organization, or one or on more aspects of the organization’s environment. At a conceptual level, the change problem is a matter of moving from one state(A) to another state(A’). Moving from A to A’ is typically accomplished as a result of setting up and achieving three types of goals: transform, reduce, and apply. Transform goals are concerned with identifying differences between the two states. Reduce goals are concerned with determining ways of eliminating these differences. Apply goals are concerned with putting into play operators that actually effect the elimination of these differences(see Newell & Simon). As the preceding goal types suggest, the analysis of a change problem will at various times focus on defining the outcomes of the change effort, on identifying the changes necessary to produce these outcomes, and on finding and implementing ways and means of making the required changes. In simpler terms, the change problem can be treated as smaller problems having to do with the how, what, and why of change. Change as a “How” Problem The change problem is often expressed, at least initially, in the form of a “how” question. How do we get people to be more open, to assume more responsibility, to be more creative? How do we introduce self-managed teams in Department W? How do we change over from System X to System Y in Division Z? How do we move from a mainframe-centered computing environment to one that accommodates and integrates PCs? How do we get this organization to be more innovative, competitive, or productive? How do we raise more effective barriers to market entry by our competitors? How might we more tightly bind our suppliers to us? How do we reduce cycle times? In short, the initial formulation of a change problem is means-centered, with the goal state more or less implied. There is a reason why the initial statement of a problem is so often means-centered and we will touch on it later. For now, let’s examine the other two ways in which the problem might be formulated — as “what” or as “why” questions. Change as a “What” Problem As was pointed out in the preceding section, to frame the change effort in the form of “how” questions is to focus the effort on means. Diagnosis is assumed or not performed at all. Consequently, the ends sought are not discussed. This might or might not be problematic. To focus on ends requires the posing of “what” questions. What are we trying to accomplish? What changes are necessary? What indicators will signal success? What standards apply? What measures of performance are we trying to affect? Change as a “Why” Problem Ends and means are relative notions, not absolutes; that is, something is an end or a means only in relation to something else. Thus, chains and networks of ends-means relationships often have to be traced out before one finds the “true” ends of a change effort. In this regard, “why” questions prove extremely useful. ==========================================================

Factors in Selecting A Change Strategy Generally speaking, there is no single change strategy. You can adopt a general or what is called a "grand strategy" but, for any given initiative, you are best served by some mix of strategies. Which of the preceding strategies to use in your mix of strategies is a decision affected by a number of factors. Some of the more important ones follow. •   Degree of Resistance. Strong resistance argues for a coupling of power-coercive and environmental-adaptive strategies. Weak resistance or concurrence argues for a combination of Empircal-Rational and normative-reeducative strategies. •   Target Population. Large populations argue for a mix of all four strategies, something for everyone so to speak. •   The Stakes. High stakes argue for a mix of all four strategies. When the stakes are high, nothing can be left to chance. •   The Time Frame. Short time frames argue for a power-coercive strategy. Longer time frames argue for a mix of empirical-rational, normative-reeducative, and environmental-adaptive strategies. •   Expertise. Having available adequate expertise at making change argues for some mix of the strategies outlined above. Not having it available argues for reliance on the power-coercive strategy. •   Dependency. This is a classic double-edged sword. If the organization is dependent on its people, management's ability to command or demand is limited. Conversely, if people are dependent upon the organization, their ability to oppose or resist is limited.(Mutual dependency almost always signals a requirement for some level of negotiation.) One More Time: How do you manage change? The honest answer is that you manage it pretty much the same way you’d manage anything else of a turbulent, messy, chaotic nature, that is, you don’t really manage it, you grapple with it. It’s more a matter of leadership ability than management skill. The first thing to do is jump in. You can’t do anything about it from the outside. A clear sense of mission or purpose is essential. The simpler the mission statement the better. “Kick ass in the marketplace” is a whole lot more meaningful than “Respond to market needs with a range of products and services that have been carefully designed and developed to compare so favorably in our customers’ eyes with the products and services offered by our competitors that the majority of buying decisions will be made in our favor.” Build a team. “Lone wolves” have their uses, but managing change isn’t one of them. On the other hand, the right kind of lone wolf makes an excellent temporary team leader. Maintain a flat organizational team structure and rely on minimal and informal reporting requirements. Pick people with relevant skills and high energy levels. You’ll need both. Toss out the rulebook. Change, by definition, calls for a configured response, not adherence to prefigured routines. Shift to an action-feedback model. Plan and act in short intervals. Do your analysis on the fly. No lengthy up-front studies, please. Remember the hare and the tortoise. Set flexible priorities. You must have the ability to drop what you’re doing and tend to something more important. Treat everything as a temporary measure. Don’t “lock in” until the last minute, and then insist on the right to change your mind. Ask for volunteers. You’ll be surprised at who shows up. You’ll be pleasantly surprised by what they can do. Find a good “straw boss” or team leader and stay out of his or her way. Give the team members whatever they ask for — except authority. They’ll generally ask only for what they really need in the way of resources. If they start asking for authority, that’s a signal they’re headed toward some kind of power-based confrontation and that spells trouble. Nip it in the bud! Concentrate dispersed knowledge. Start and maintain an issues logbook. Let anyone go anywhere and talk to anyone about anything. Keep the communications barriers low, widely spaced, and easily hurdled. Initially, if things look chaotic, relax — they are Remember, the task of change management is to bring order to a messy situation, not pretend that it’s already well organized and disciplined. ======================================================================

WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE

It used to be an accepted fact that everyone resists change. We now know that it is not true. There are many reasons why a person resents(negative attitude) and/or resists(active opposition to) a particular change. Likewise, there are many reasons why a person accepts(neutral attitude) and/or welcomes(positive attitude) a particular change.

Why People Resent or Resist Change

There are many reasons why employees of  all sizes/ shapes may react negatively to change.

Personal Loss. People are afraid they will lose something. They might be right or they might be wrong in their fear. Some of the things they might lose are as follows:

Security. They might lose their jobs through a

reduction in force or elimination of their jobs.

Automation and a decline in sales often bring about

this feeling.

Money. They might lose money through a reduction in salary, pay, benefits, or overtime. Or, expenses such as travel may be increased because of a move to another location that is farther from their home.

Pride and satisfaction. They might end up with jobs that

no longer require their abilities and skills.   Friends and important contact. They might be moved to another location where they will no longer have contact with friends and important people. This loss of visibility and daily contacts is very serious for people who are ambitious as well as those with a strong need for love and acceptance.

Freedom.They might be put on a job under a boss who

no longer gives them freedom to do it "their way."

Closer supervision that provides less opportunity

for decision making is a dramatic loss to some

people.

Responsibility.Their jobs might be reduced to menial

tasks without responsibility. This may occur when a

new boss takes over or through changes in methods or

equipment.

Authority. They might lose their position of power and authority over people. This frequently happens when re organization takes place or when a new boss decides to usurp some of the authority that an individual had.

Good working conditions. They might be moved from a large private office to a small one or to a desk in a work area with only a partition between people.

Status.Their job title, responsibility, or authority

might be reduced from an important one to a lesser

one with loss of status and recognition from others.

This also happens when another layer of management

is inserted between a subordinate and manager.

No Need.

The typical reaction is, "What's the matter with the way things are now?" Or, "I don't see any reason why we should change."

More Harm Than Good.

This is even stronger than the previously mentioned "No Need". People really feel it is a mistake   that it will cause more problems that it is worth. Sometimes this reaction is justified. It is particularly common when people at the "bottom" of an organization feel that top management makes changes without knowing what is going on "down on the line."

Lack of Respect.

When people have a lack of respect and/or negative attitude toward the person responsible for making the change, there is a strong tendency to resent and even resist it. Their feelings do not allow them to look at the change objectively.

Objectionable Manner.

Sometimes change is ordered in such a way that the people resent and/or resist because they do not like being told what to do.

Negative Attitude.

People with a negative attitude toward the organization, the job and/or the boss are very apt to resent or resist change no matter what it is.

No Input.

One of the most significant reasons is the fact that the people who felt they should have been asked were not asked for their ideas concerning the change.

Personal Criticism.

Whether or not the change is actually criticizing the things that were previously done or the way in which they were done, people may look upon the change as a personal criticism.

Creates Burdens.

Some changes add more work and with it confusion, mistakes and other negative results.

Requires Effort.

The change will obviously require more effort. Much of the effort accomplishes very little, if anything. Whenever changes require more time and effort, people are apt to resent and even resist them, particularly if no rewards accompany the extra effort.

Bad Timing.

The timing of a change is very important to its acceptance. If it comes at a time when people are already having problems, the change is usually resented and probably resisted by those who are supposed to implement it.

Challenge to Authority.

Some people are testing their power and influence by simply refusing to do it.

Secondhand Information.

Some people are very sensitive about the way they learned of the change. If they found out about if from a secondhand source, they might resist it until they hear it "from the horses mouth."

What  is the Real Reason for Resentment or Resistance?

Managers often have difficulty in determining the real reason why subordinates resent and/or resist a change. They may feel that the subordinates are just being stubborn or that they are afraid they will lose something. The real reason may be entirely different.

------------------------------------------------------------------

WHY PEOPLE ACCEPT OR

WELCOME CHANGE

While some people resent and/or resist change, others accept and welcome it. The degree to which these opposites occur depends on many factors. Some of the reasons for positive reaction to change are described in this section.

Personal Gain.

When changes are made, some people may gain such things as the following:

Security.

They feel more secure in their job because of the change. Perhaps more of their skills will be used.

Money.

They may get a salary increase, more benefits, an incentive or profit sharing programme, or more overtime.

Authority

They may be promoted to a position of greater authority, or they may get a new boss who gives them more authority than they had under the previous boss.

StatuslPrestige.

They may get a new title, a new office, or a new responsibility, their boss may have assigned more responsibility, or they may have a new boss who assigns more responsibility than the previous one did.   Better working conditions.

They may get a new working schedule, new equipment, or other conditions that make the job easier or more enjoyable.

Self satisfaction.

They may get new satisfaction or feeling of achievement because of the change. Perhaps the new job gives them more of a change to use their abilities, or the boss may eliminate some of the obstacles that had prevented them from doing their best.

Better personal contacts.

They might be located in a place where they will have closer contact with influential people. Their visibility is very important to some people.

Less time and effort.

The change may make their job easier and require less time and effort.

Provides a New Challenge.

While some people look at a change negatively because it requires effort and perhaps risk, others will be eager for it because it provides a new challenge.

Likes/Respects the Source.

If people have a positive attitude toward the person or the department they represent, they will probably accept and even welcome the change.   Likes Manner.

People who are asked to do things instead of told to do them may react very positively. Someone described the most important words in the English language as follows:

Five most important words:"I am proud of you."

Four most important words:"What is your opinion?"

Three most important words:"If you please."

Two most important words:"Thank you."

One most important word:"You(or possibly We)."

The tone may have much to do with resentment or acceptance.

Reduces Boredom.

Changes that are designed to reduce boredom will be welcomed by some.

Provides Input.

One of the most powerful approaches to get acceptance is to ask for input before the final decision is made.

Desires Change.

Some people will react to change by thinking or saying, "It's about time." In other words, they have been anxious for the change to occur.

Improves Future.

Some changes will open up new avenues for future success in the organization. People will be provided with opportunities to show what they can do. Future possibilities include promotion, more money, more visibility, more recognition and more selfsatisfaction.

Right Time.

Some changes come at just the right time. If more money is needed to pay current bills or to buy a luxury item like a video recorder or a boat or to take a vacation, the change will be welcomed.

===============================

The  organisation I  am  referring to,  where  we  

introduced  ERP  software  for  managing  the  supply

chain  management  system,   with the objective  of -improving the  efficiency

-improving  the  effectiveness  

of  the  supply  chain operation.

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a -a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products

-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]

-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly

-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/

as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.

-the  company employs  about  235  people.

-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments

*marketing

*manufacturing

*sales

*finance/ administration

*human resource

*customer  service

*distribution

*warehousing/  transportation

*TQM  

==============================================

HOW did   we  INITIATE CHANGE

Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary. Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks.

CREATE A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE

How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department.

HOW IS THE RIGHT KIND OF CLIMATE CREATED?

Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate.

Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves:

Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs.

Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.

This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life. The manager/supervisor determines the climate in which they initiate change.

GET READY TO SELL

Much of the difficulty in getting co operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/supervisors can find most of the answers to employees' questions before they are even asked.
xing
 
Posts: 57
Joined: Wed Jul 31, 2013 9:54 am

Management Functions And Behaviour

Postby Adalberto » Sun Nov 20, 2016 12:24 am

s to these questions would be useful.

What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Will training or re training be necessary? When does it go into effect?

Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change.

IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF HELP

Why should you, the managers and supervisors, shoulder the burden alone? Staff can frequently be a great help in preparing to sell a change by explaining technical aspects and demonstrating new techniques.

One of the most overlooked sources of help in introducing changes are the informal leaders in the work group. With their help the job becomes easier. Giving recognition to informal leaders puts them in a co operative frame of mind.

Since union stewards are often informal leaders, their co operation ought to be solicited. The backing of union stewards makes the job easier.

ANTICIPATE OBJECTIONS

Change that upsets routines, requires new knowledge or skills, or inconveniences people are bound to meet with some objections or resistance. Looking at a change from the employees point of view will usually be enough to help determine what their objections are likely to be. Knowing the objections, we can, with a little creative thought, turn these objections into advantages.

Showing the staff with reason or logic will not do the job. Managers/supervisors have to convince people that the change is really best for them and that will not happen until their objections are dealt with seriously.

SELL BENEFITS

Everyone is concerned with, "What's in it for me?"

"Will the change mean more satisfying work. greater security. opportunity to show what I can do. more responsibility. more pay. less fatigue. less confusion. greater independence?"

The benefits used to motivate people to co operate should be put on as personal a level as possible. It would be dishonest, however, not to recognise any disadvantages that a change may bring. These can usually be countered with long range benefits.

One of the techniques that is helpful in identifying the characteristics and values of the proposed changed condition is a "Word Picture". The picture makes the new condition desirable in the minds of the staff.

A)One of the ways this concept of "word picture" is used, is the physical change in office layout or new equipment or any other physical changes.

B)To picture or model a change in policy, organization or operation is more difficult than the physical change. The principle is the same. The picture can help in communicating the desirability of the change and in fine tuning the change because it makes it possible to discuss how things will operate. It may take the form of a flow chart, an organization chart or a description of relationships.

To use this approach for deciding whether to initiate a change, you can take the following steps:

Describe as clearly as possible the present situation.

Describe as clearly as possible the desired situation.

Analyse what specific changes will have to take place in the key factors involved to produce the desired situation. Look at such key factors as bosses, employees, equipment, physical environment, policies and procedures, work methods, materials and time. Identify the relevant factors.

Assess the strengths of the forces promoting the desired situation and of those resisting it.

Determine what action to take. Choices are:

A)Do nothing, the resistant forces are stronger than the forces promoting change.

B)Act to strengthen the promoting forces and/or to weaken resistance, by concentrating one's efforts on the key factors.

LISTEN IN DEPTH

Employees have a right to be heard. If employees are treated with respect, they probably will respond in kind. They will feel better too, if they know their concerns have been considered.

FOLLOW UP

After having conscientiously sold the benefits of a change, it is tremendously important that the managers/supervisors see that their promises have materialized. A sincere interest in how the change has affected the employee and a willingness to make adjustments, help build the climate in which future changes will be initiated.

AS  A  MOTIVATION,   WE  INTRODUCE   AN  INCENTIVE  SYSTEM,

WHERE  ALL  MANAGERS/  STAFF  WOULD  GAIN  A   BONUS

OF   50%  OF  THE  PRODUCTIVITY  GAIN  DURING THE  FIRST

2  YEARS  OF  IMPLEMENTATION.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHANGES AND COMMUNICATION

The following steps will help you to minimize  resistance:

1.Explain why. Provide all the facts about the reason for changing. If there are risks, acknowledge them but explain why the risk is worth taking.

2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change.

3.Seek questions/clarifications and answer them.

4.Invite participation and ask for suggestions because the people involved know the situation best.

5.Avoid surprise because this stirs unreasoning opposition more than any other factor.

6.Acknowledge the rough spots and explain how you plan to smooth the change.

7.Set standards and explain your expectations.

8.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.

9.Acknowledge and reinforce the staff's co operation and give them feedback on the progress.

10.Keep the two way communications open for suggestions and corrections.

=============================================

CONCLUSION How do you manage change? The honest answer is that you manage it pretty much the same way you’d manage anything else of a turbulent, messy, chaotic nature, that is, you don’t really manage it, you grapple with it. It’s more a matter of leadership ability than management skill. The first thing to do is jump in. You can’t do anything about it from the outside. A clear sense of mission or purpose is essential. The simpler the mission statement the better. “Kick ass in the marketplace” is a whole lot more meaningful than “Respond to market needs with a range of products and services that have been carefully designed and developed to compare so favorably in our customers’ eyes with the products and services offered by our competitors that the majority of buying decisions will be made in our favor.” Build a team. “Lone wolves” have their uses, but managing change isn’t one of them. On the other hand, the right kind of lone wolf makes an excellent temporary team leader. Maintain a flat organizational team structure and rely on minimal and informal reporting requirements. Pick people with relevant skills and high energy levels. You’ll need both. Toss out the rulebook. Change, by definition, calls for a configured response, not adherence to prefigured routines. Shift to an action-feedback model. Plan and act in short intervals. Do your analysis on the fly. No lengthy up-front studies, please. Remember the hare and the tortoise. Set flexible priorities. You must have the ability to drop what you’re doing and tend to something more important. Treat everything as a temporary measure. Don’t “lock in” until the last minute, and then insist on the right to change your mind. Ask for volunteers. You’ll be surprised at who shows up. You’ll be pleasantly surprised by what they can do. Find a good “straw boss” or team leader and stay out of his or her way. Give the team members whatever they ask for — except authority. They’ll generally ask only for what they really need in the way of resources. If they start asking for authority, that’s a signal they’re headed toward some kind of power-based confrontation and that spells trouble. Nip it in the bud! Concentrate dispersed knowledge. Start and maintain an issues logbook. Let anyone go anywhere and talk to anyone about anything. Keep the communications barriers low, widely spaced, and easily hurdled. Initially, if things look chaotic, relax — they are Remember, the task of change management is to bring order to a messy situation, not pretend that it’s already well organized and disciplined. ==============================================

#############################################################

2].define organisational diagnosis. discuss different methods of organisational analysis and cite how it is carried out in your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Organizational Diagnosis Organizational Diagnosis helps organizations identify the “gaps” between “what is” and “what ought to be.” Once we gain a shared vision of the desired state, we  identify barriers and work toward solutions. The   Six-Phase approach to organizational diagnosis is tailored to the specific needs of each co: Phase 1: Define develop a shared understanding of the task, issue, or problem along with a plan for diagnosis. Phase 2: Diagnose examine organizational archival reports/documents and utilize information gathered through interviews, focus groups, questionnaires & surveys, along with objective observations to collect relevant data. Phase 3: Analyze After collecting the data, use statistical analysis methods to interpret the data and develop practical recommendations. Phase 4: Presentation of Findings This phase involves  determining   an effective intervention strategy.   Phase 5: Action Planning We work with key players from the  organization to develop an action plan that: •   Fits the needs of the  organization •   Will yield measurable results •   Will enhance the   organization’s capacity to manage change •   Is catered to the  organization’s situation, culture, context, and maturational cycle Phase 6: Reinforce maintaining a focus on the desired state and helping organizations sustain change initiatives. The reinforce phase ensures effective implementation of our action plan and outlines the next steps to take once the action plan has been implemented. =================================================================

2. ORG.ANALYSIS    IS  THE  SECOND  STAGE,   WHERE WE  ANALYSE  THE INFORMATION   IN  A  SCIENTIFIC   MANNNER   AND  DEVELOP

A  STRATEGY /  ACTION  PLAN.

•   Culture and Climate Analysis •   Employee Opinion Analysis •   Market Research  Analysis

•   Competitive Analysis •   COMPANY  SWOT Analysis •   Environmental Scan ANALYSIS / Development •   Skill and Competency Assessment •   Customer Input or Feedback  ANALYSIS

Group and Individual Assessments,  and 360 Evaluations FROM   THESE   WE  DEVELOP

Development of Master Strategies Development of Goals Development of Objectives Development of Tactics Structural Redesign Change Planning, Implementation Design, and SUPPORT SYSTEMS.

============================================   

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a -a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products

-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]

-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly

-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/

as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.

-the  company employs  about  235  people.

-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments

*marketing

*manufacturing

*sales

*finance/ administration

*human resource

*customer  service

*distribution

*warehousing/  transportation

*TQM  

=========================

THE  ORGANIZATIONAL   ANALYSIS    INCLUDE:

1.ENVIRONMENTAL  ANALYSIS

Environmental analysis is defined as the process by which strategists monitor the economic, governmental, legal, market, competitive, supplier, technological, geographic, and social cultural settings to determine opportunities and threats to their firms / company / organization. Environment diagnosis principally consists of managerial decisions made by strategist for analyzing the significance of the data like Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of the organization to has to design their own strategy for formulation, implementation and controlling the internal environmental factors. Environmental analysis helps to strategic executive and manager to diagnosis of strategic competitive force and components of strategic management. However, internal environment of the organization is a quite essential and important from the point of view of the environment analysis. It is the cornerstone of the new and exiting business opportunity analysis too. For instance, the individual life success depends on his innate capabilities like psychological factors, traits and skills. These are to the cope with the environment then will be got success otherwise failure. The survival is the basic elements and success of the business organization, it has depend on its own strengths in terms of resources like money, men, machinery, materials, market and methods as its command. Organization success depends on effective utilization of physical resource, financial resources and human resource skills. These are adaptability to the business environment. Every business organization principally consists of internal environment factors and set of external environmental factors. In this chapter, we shall discuss only the internal environment of the organization/company. Internal environment factors are generally considered as controllable factors of the organization. Internal environment factors are important to business like personal(human) resource department. marketing department, production department, physical facilities, accounting and finance departments and swot analysis. Therefore, the organization controls over these factors, these factors are modified or alter by the organization that suit for the business environment. INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANISATION / COMPANY Formulation of an effective and efficient strategy has based on a clear definition of organization mission, an accurate assessment of the external environment and through internal analysis of the organization. Organization requires success it needs at least three ingredients. They are as listed: Strategy must be consistent with conditions in the competitive environment Strategy must place realistic requirements on the organization / companys internal resources and capabilities. Strategy must be carefully formulated, implemented, controllable and executed. Internal analysis of the organization is to difficult and challenging one to strategist.

An internal analysis has leads to design a realistic organization profile. It frequently involves tradeoff, value system judgments, educated and skilled guess as well as objective and standardized analysis. A systematic internal analysis leads to main objective of the organization profile. It is essential to develop strategy and design a realistic mission for achievement of the strategy. Internal analysis of the organization must identify the strategically strengths, opportunities, weakness and threats that are based on organization strategy. Organizational analysis identifies suitable strategy that based on the SWOT analysis. Internal analysis can be achieved by first identifying key internal factors like value system, mission objectives, management structure and nature, integrated power relationship, human resource, company/organization image and brand equity, physical assets, R&D, technological capabilities, marketing resource and financial resource factors and secondly by evaluating these factors. THE VALUE OF SYSTEMATIC INTERNAL ASSESSMENT The value system of internal assessment is essential from the point of view of strategy formulation by the experienced strategist of the organization / company. The value system applies to either large or small business concern. It is critical in developing a successful business strategy. Regardless of the favorable opportunities in the environment, a strategy must be considered the essential internal strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the organization if such opportunities are to be maximized for accomplishment of goals. The value systematic internal analysis is particularly essential in small business organizations. Small business organizations are faced lot of problems like limited resource and markets. These organizations are flexible and capable to capture selected markets and effectively channel their limited resource and maximize these limited market opportunities. Internal analysis is the basis objectives of the organization. Steps/Process in the Development of a Organizational / Company Profile Company / organization profile focus on determination of strengths and weakness of the strategic environment of the business. Identifying and evaluating strategic internal factors are based to accomplish to organization future strategy. The major steps are important to development of an organization / company profile. They are listed below: Stage one -- Identification of Strategic Factors Stage two --Using Value Chain Analysis Stage three -- Evaluations of strategic internal factors IDENTIFICAION OF STRATEGIC FACTORS An important identification of strategic factors approach as listed below: 1. Functional approach 2. The value chain approach FUNTIONAL APPROACH Functional approach refers to Organizations basic capabilities; characteristics, swot analysis and limitation are the key strategic factors. Functional approach key strategic factors are as follows: Marketing Finance and accounting Production /operation/ technical Human resource development Organization of general management Marketing Marketing deals with the following issues: Organizations products / service; product life cycle and marketing strategy. Concentration of sales in few products or little customer segmentation. Ability to gathered information about the market. To know the market share or sub market share. Product/service mix and expansion potential: to know the life cycle of key products; to know the profit or loss of the product/service. To clearly know the channel of distribution; number, coverage, and control. To maintain effective sales organization: to find out knowledge about the customer needs. To improve product/service quality with image and reputation of brand name. Efficient and effective utilization of available resource for effective sales promotion and advertising. To aware of the pricing strategy and pricing flexibility. To effective monitoring and feedback of the marketing functions and expansion of product Effective implementation of after sales service and follow up. To keep standards, goodwill and brand loyalty. Finance and Accounting Finance and accounting functions refers to: Ability to raises short term and long-term capital: either debt or equity. To maintain good corporate level resource. To know the cost of capital relative to industry and competitors Tax consideration To build up effective relationship with owners, investors, financial institution and stock holders. To know the leverage position: capacity to utilization financial strategies, like lease or sale and lease back. To aware of the cost of entry and barriers of the entry. To know the price earning ration Present working capital position of the organization. Effective cost control and ability to minimize cost of expenditure for production of goods and service. Financial size of the organization. Efficient and effective accounting system for cost, budget, and profit planning of the organization. Production/Operation/Technical Production or operation or technical refers to: To know the present raw material cost and availability Inventory control system of the organization. Location facilities; layout and utilization facilities. Technical efficiency and effective utilization of technical resource in the organization. Effective use and implementation of subcontracting. Degree of vertical integration in terms of value added and profit margin of the product. To know the efficient and cost benefit of production techniques. Effective utilization and implementation of operation control procedure: design, scheduling, purchasing, quality control and efficiency. To know the costs and technological competencies relative to industry and competitors. Research development, innovative, advance ethnological development. Patents, trademarks and similar legal protection for their organization products/service. Human Resource Development Human resource development refers to the following: Effective management of the human resource in the organization. Improvement of employee skill and morale. Labor relations costs compared to industry and competition from present industry scenario. Efficient and effective formulation and implementation and controlling of the policies. Effective utilization of incentive to motivate employees performance. To know the ability to level peaks and valleys of employment. To regulate employee turnover and absenteeism. Specialized skills and experience. Organization of general management Organization of general management refers to the following: To know the organization structure. Organization image and prestige to public world. Organization record for achieving goals and objectives. Effective utilization of resource and overall organization control system. To effective monitoring organization cultural climate. Effective utilization of systematic procedure and tools and techniques in decision-making. To know the top management skills, capabilities and interest. Effective implementation strategic planning system. To keep and maintain intra organization synergy(multibusiness) Some of which would be the focus of internal analysis in most business organization. Organization is not likely to consider all of the factors are potential strengths or weakness. Strategist has develop or review the factors which are important for successful of the organization. For the Analysis of the organization, firstly, a strategist has to analyze the past trends like sales, costs and profitability. These trends are the major importance in identification of the internal factors of the organization. Further this identification should be based on a clear picture of the nature of the organizations sales trends. An anatomy of past trends has broken down by product lines channels of distribution of goods and service into different segmentation of key customers, geographical region and sales approach should be developed in detail. A similar anatomy of past trends should focus on costs and profitability. Strategist has to conduct detailed investigation of the organizations performance history that helps isolate internal factors influencing to sales, costs and profitability or their interrelationships. The above factors are important in future strategy decisions. Identification of strategic factors also requires an external focus of the organization. Strategist isolates key internal factors through analysis of past and present performance like industry conditions / trends and comparisons with competitors. In addition, strategic internal factors are often selected for in depth evaluation because organizations are contemplating expansion of products or markets, diversification. Strategist carefully scrutinizes the industry under consideration of current competitors. This is a key means of identifying strategic factors, if an organization is evaluating its capabilities more into unfamiliar markets. ===================================

INTERNAL  ORGANIZATIONAL   ANALYSIS

-plan  to  change  operational methods [ change in  skills/ knowledge]

-plan to  change technology [ change  in  knowledge/skills]

-organization  restructuring [ change  in  job functions]

-changes in  corporate  strategy [ change  in  knowledge /skills]

-changes in the  role  of  jobs. [  change  in  knowledge  /  skills]

====================================================

Levels of Analysis

1. Organizational Analysis

-Identification of short- and long-term goals

-Identification of human resource needs

-Evaluation of methods of meeting HR needs(e.g.,

selection, training)

-Assessment of resource availability

-Evaluation of support for transfer of training

2. Task(Job) Analysis

-Identification of: tasks

-standards

-optimal procedures

3. Person Analysis

-Evaluation of individual against standards

-Identification of deficiencies

-Identification of causes(e.g., motivation vs. ability)

4. Demographic Analysis

-Assess the specific training needs of various

demographic groups(e.g., the disabled, ]

========================================================

###########################################################  
Adalberto
 
Posts: 35
Joined: Sat Feb 01, 2014 7:27 pm

Management Functions And Behaviour

Postby aldric13 » Sat Nov 26, 2016 1:50 am

Express the various models of decision making process. Describe the models which is most suitable to your organization of any organization your are familiar with and why?

ANSWER: MAMTA,

HERE IS SOME  USEFUL  MATERIAL.

REGARDS

LEO LINGHAM

========================================

Models of Decision Making

1.

• The Rational Model

– Consists of a structured four-step sequence:

• identifying the problem

• generating alternative solutions

• selecting a solution

• implementing and evaluating the solution

2.

Simon’s Normative Model

- Based on premise that decision making is not

rational

- Decision making is characterized by

* limited information processing

* use of rules of thumb or shortcuts

* satisficing

3.

Assets of Group Decision

Making

• Groups can accumulate more knowledge and facts

• Groups have a broader perspective and consider more

alternative solutions

• Individuals who participate in decisions are more satisfied

with the decision and are more likely to support it.

• Group decision making processes serve an important

communication function as well as a useful political

function.

4.

Liabilities of Group Decision

Making

• Groups often work more slowly than individuals.

• Groups decisions involve considerable compromise that

may lead to less than optimal decisions.

• Groups are often dominated by one individual or a small

clique, thereby negating many of the virtues of group

processes.

• Overreliance on group decision making can inhibit

management’s ability to act quickly and decisively when

necessary.

Individual vs. Group Decision

Making

• In establishing objectives, groups are probably superior to

individuals because of the greater amount of knowledge

available to groups.

• In identifying alternatives, the individual efforts of group

members encourage a broad search in various functional

areas of the organization.

• In evaluating alternatives, the collective judgement of the

group, with its wider range of viewpoints, seems superior

to that of the individual decision maker.

===============================================

THE  COMPANY  USING  THE  RATIONAL  APPROACH.

Basic Guidelines  Decision Making

1. Define the problem

This is often where people struggle. They react to what they think the problem is. Instead, seek to understand more about why you think there's a problem. Defining the problem:(with input from yourself and others)

Ask yourself and others, the following questions: a. What can you see that causes you to think there's a problem? b. Where is it happening?

c. How is it happening?

d. When is it happening?

e. With whom is it happening?(HINT: Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?" When we're stressed, blaming is often one of our first reactions. To be an effective manager, you need to address issues more than people.)

f. Why is it happening?

g. Write down a five-sentence description of the problem in terms of "The following should be happening, but isn't ..." or "The following is happening and should be: ..." As much as possible, be specific in your description, including what is happening, where, how, with whom and why.(It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods. Also see http://www.managementhelp.org/research/research.htm.

Defining complex problems:

a. If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps a-f until you have descriptions of several related problems.

Verifying your understanding of the problems:

a. It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else.

Prioritize the problems:

a. If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you should address first. b. Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems. Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. For example, if you're continually answering "urgent" phone calls, then you've probably got a more "important" problem and that's to design a system that screens and prioritizes your phone calls.

Understand your role in the problem:

a. Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others. For example, if you're very stressed out, it'll probably look like others are, too, or, you may resort too quickly to blaming and reprimanding others. Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem, you may ignore the accountabilities of others.

----------------------------------------------

2. Look at potential causes for the problem

a. It's amazing how much you don't know about what you don't know. Therefore, in this phase, it's critical to get input from other people who notice the problem and who are effected by it. b. It's often useful to collect input from other individuals one at a time(at least at first). Otherwise, people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems.

c. Write down what your opinions and what you've heard from others.

d. Regarding what you think might be performance problems associated with an employee, it's often useful to seek advice from a peer or your supervisor in order to verify your impression of the problem.

e.Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why.

---------------------------------------------------- 3.Define the Goal or Objective

In a sense, every problem is a situation that prevents us from achieving previously determined goals. If a personal goal is to lead a pleasant and meaningful life, then any situation that would prevent it is viewed as a problem. Similarly, in a business situation, if a company objective is to operate profitably, then problems are those occurrences which prevent the company from achieving its previously defined profit objective. But an objective need not be a grand, overall goal of a business or an individual. It may be quite narrow and specific. "I want to pay off the loan on my car by May," or "The plant must produce 300 golf carts in the next two weeks," are more limited objectives. Thus, defining the objective is the act of exactly describing the task or goal. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem

a. At this point, it's useful to keep others involved(unless you're facing a personal and/or employee performance problem). Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. It's critical when collecting the ideas to not pass any judgment on the ideas -- just write them down as you hear them. -------------------------------------------------------------

5. Select an approach to resolve the problem When selecting the best approach, consider:

a. Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?

b. Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Are they affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach?

c. What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Plan the implementation of the best alternative(this is your action plan)

a. Carefully consider "What will the situation look like when the problem is solved?"

b. What steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem? What systems or processes should be changed in your organization, for example, a new policy or procedure? Don't resort to solutions where someone is "just going to try harder". c. How will you know if the steps are being followed or not?(these are your indicators of the success of your plan)

d. What resources will you need in terms of people, money and facilities? e. How much time will you need to implement the solution? Write a schedule that includes the start and stop times, and when you expect to see certain indicators of success. f. Who will primarily be responsible for ensuring implementation of the plan?

g. Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan.

h. Communicate the plan to those who will involved in implementing it and, at least, to your immediate supervisor.

(An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continually observation and feedback.) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Monitor implementation of the plan

Monitor the indicators of success: a. Are you seeing what you would expect from the indicators?

b. Will the plan be done according to schedule? c. If the plan is not being followed as expected, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not

One of the best ways to verify if a problem has been solved or not is to resume normal operations in the organization. Still, you should consider:

a. What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? Consider changes to policies and procedures, training, etc. b. Lastly, consider "What did you learn from this problem solving?" Consider new knowledge, understanding and/or skills. c. Consider writing a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort, and what you learned as a result. Share it with your supervisor, peers and subordinates

=======================================================

THE  ORGANIZATION  I   AM   ASSOCIATED  WITH

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a -a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products

-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]

-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly

-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/

as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.

-the  company employs  about  235  people.

-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments

*marketing

*manufacturing

*sales

*finance/ administration

*human resource

*customer  service

*distribution

*warehousing/  transportation

*TQM  

==============================================

THE  COMPANY  ANALYSES  THE  FOLLOWING   DATABASE

AND  APPLYS   THE  PROBELM  SOLVING/ DECISION MAKING   APPROACH   /   FINALIZES   THE  PLAN.

1. External Assessment

Areas for opportunities and threats

* Markets [ what  is  the market  situation, which is forcing the change requirements *Customers [ how can service the customer -internal / external -better .          

* Industry  [ is  the  industry  trend ]

* Competition [ is  it the  competitive situation       *Factors of  business [ causing  the change]

* Technology [ is  it  technology  change ]

2. Internal Assessment

Areas  for strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to success

ORGANIZATION DIMENSIONS *Culture  [ is the  working  culture  change ]

* Organization [  is the  organization  demanding  change ] * Systems  [ is it  the  systems change ] * Management practices  [ change in  managemement process]

OTHER KEY DIMENSIONS

*Cost?efficiency[  is it for  cost efficiency ]

* Financial  performance  [ is  it for  financial  performance improvement ]

* Quality [ is  it for  quality  performance improvement *Service [ is  it for  service   performance improvement *Technology[ is  it for  technology   performance improvement * Market segments [ is  it for  sales  performance improvement * Innovation[ is  it for    performance improvement *new products[ is  it for new product   performance improvement *Asset condition[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement *productivity[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement 3. Source  Strategic  objectives  and  programs

The critical issues that must be addressed if the organization Is  to  succeed Strengths

Weaknesses   Opportunities   Threat

PRIORITY   ISSUES

FROM  THE  ABOVE , DETERMINE   THE  CORE  ISSUES

WHICH  NEEDS  TO  SOLVED  WITH  YOUR  INVESTMENT.

STRATEGIC  PROGRAMS

FROM  THE  ABOVE  CORE  ISSUES , DETERMINE  YOUR

STRATEGIC  PROGRAMS.  Mission  STATEMENT VISION    STATEMENT   Your CORE  PURPOSE      Your   CORE   OBJECTIVES    Your   Core markets;   Your  CORE  strategic thrusts.

BUSINESS DEFINITION:

The arena of products, services, customers, technologies, distribution methods, and geography in which you'll compete to get results.   VALUES:   Desired attitudes and behavior toward internal and external stakeholders that will yield the culture and business results you want and that you will execute and turn into action through

-policy, -programs, -processes,

-procedures, -personnel selection.

­

levels and tiers of strategies

OVERALL FINANCIAL POSTURE

Grow; hold; milk; get out

PRIORITIES AND POSTURES

(Grow; hold; milk)

Market; business unit; product/services

Internal development

Divest

Restructure

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Cost /Value/ differentiation

EXTERNAL STRATEGIES

Product      Convenience

Service      Image

Target customer      Geography

Distribution      Product design

Delivery      Quality

Value      Reliability

Pricing      Advertising/promotion

INTERNAL STRATEGIES

People/skills / Facilities

Organizational /   Product

structure    /         development

Management style   /Incentives/rewards

Training      Spending

Equipment      Sourcing/          manufacturing

technology          /    Systems

R&D          /   Service

FINANCING        /  Quality    Strategy Statement Content

v Priorities and Posture   Business unit   Market   Product   Strategic thrust/competitive advantage   External strategies   Internal strategic thrust   Internal strategies   Strategic fixes

8. Strategic

Program Content

LEADERSHIP: who

OBJECTIVES

KEY STEPS: who, what, when

FINANCIAL AND STRATEGIC

GAIN AND COST

PEOPLE: numbers and skills

COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS:

People and organizational units outside your control who must contribute

LEVERAGE: the high leverage individuals and units who must contribute at lower levels Strategic

?Accountability~/Reviews

QUARTERLY: Programs and strategic numbers' progress

INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES:

Performance appraisal

REWARDS AND CONSEQUENCES: Based on strategic performance of teams and individuals

MONITORING  SYSTEM

=============================================

THE  COMPANY  ARRIVES  AT  THE  FOLLOWING DECISIONS   AT  THE  END  OF   THE  SESSIONS:

1.REVENUE BUDGET.

2.GROSS  PROFIT  BUDGET.

3.NET PROFIT  BUDGET.

4.SALES  TOTAL  FORECAST.

5.SALES  BY  PRODUCTS.

6.OPERATIONAL  EXPENSES  BUDGET.

7.FIXED  EXPENSES  BUDGET.

8.PRODUCTIVITY  IMPROVEMENT  %

9.PROFITABILITY  INCREMENT  %

10. RETURN  ON  INVESTMENT.

==============================================

THE  ONLY  CHANGE  I  WOULD  MAKE

-seek  more  time  for  this  workshop  exercise,

as  we  often  work  in  tight  time  frame.

===========================================

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

Dear Sir kindly help me in two more question. 1)Write an essay on the process of change and enumerates how it is carried out in an organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

2)Define organization diagnosis. Discuss different method of organizational analysis and cite how it is carried out in your organization or any organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.
aldric13
 
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