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International Business

Postby alahmoot68 » Sat Nov 26, 2016 5:23 pm

1.discuss Hofsted's national cultures dimentions and recommended leadership styles. pick one type of the recommendations(e.g high power distance and low uncertainity avoidence) and discuss why the specific recommended leadership style works.

2. what are some of the major factors to take into consideration when picking a country for setting up an e-commerce business?why do trading blocks such as Mercosur, ASEAN and the European Union present significant potential for e-commerce businesses?

3.identify three small business barriers to internationalization. if i was a recently hired manager of a small business facing great opportunities in a foreign market ,how would i go about overcoming these barriers? 4. discuss the conditions when a transational or international form is likely to out compete a multidomestic or regional strategist. contrast this with the opposite situation where the multidomestic is most likely to be sucessful.  
alahmoot68
 
Posts: 51
Joined: Wed Jul 31, 2013 11:28 am

International Business

Postby Kent » Mon Nov 28, 2016 10:16 pm

MARIA,

HERE  IS  SOME  USEFUL  MATERIAL.

REGARDS

LEO LINGHAM

==============================

1.discuss Hofsted's national cultures dimentions and recommended leadership styles. pick one type of the recommendations(e.g high power distance and low uncertainity avoidence) and discuss why the specific recommended leadership style works.

five dimensions of  CULTURE  in the  national work related values:

1.Low vs. High Power Distance - -the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Low power distance(e.g. austria,australia,denmark, new zealand) expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decision making of those in power. In High power distance countries(e.g. MALAYSIA), less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal, hierarchical positions. As such, the Power Distance Index Hofstede defines does not reflect an objective difference in power distribution, but rather the way people perceive power differences. In Europe, Power Distance tends to be lower in Northern countries and higher in Southern and Eastern parts. There seems to be an admittedly disputable correlation with predominant religions.

Individualism vs. collectivism - individualism is contrasted with collectivism , and refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves and to choose their own affiliations, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of a life-long group or organization. Latin American cultures rank among the most collectivist in this category, while Anglo countries such as the usa, great britain  and australia  are the most individualistic cultures.

on

Masculinity vs. femininity - refers to the value placed on traditionally male or female values(as understood in most Western cultures). So called 'masculine' cultures value competitiveness,assertiveness, ambit, and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality  of  life. japan  is considered by Hofstede to be the most "masculine" culture(replaced by slovakia  ), sweden the most "feminine." Anglo cultures are moderately masculine. As a result of the taboo on sexuality in many cultures, particularly masculine ones, and because of the obvious gender generalizations implied by Hofstede's terminology, this dimension is often renamed by users of Hofstede's work, e.g. to Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life. Another reading of the same dimension holds that in 'M' cultures, the differences between gender roles are more dramatic and less fluid than in 'F' cultures.

Uncertainty avoidance - reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Cultures that scored high in uncertainty avoidance prefer rules(e.g. about religion and food) and structured circumstances, and employees tend to remain longer with their present employer. mediterranean  cultures, latin america , and japan   rank the highest in this category.

Long vs. short term orientation - describes a society's "time horizon," or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. In long term oriented societies, values include persistence(perseverance), ordering relationships by status, thrift, and having a sense of shame; in short term oriented societies, values include normative statements, personal steadiness and stability, protecting ones face, respect for tradition, and reciprocationof greetings, favors, and gifts. China, Japan and the Asian countries score especially high(long-term) here, with Western nations scoring rather low(short-term) and many of the less developed nations very low;china  scored highest and pakistan lowest.

These cultural differences describe averages or tendencies and not characteristics of individuals. A Japanese person for example can have a very low 'uncertainty avoidance' compared to a Filipino even though their 'national' cultures point strongly in a different direction. Consequently, a country's scores should not be interpreted as deterministic.

1.Low vs. High Power Distance - -the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Low power distance(e.g. austria,australia,denmark, new zealand) expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decision making of those in power. In High power distance countries(e.g. MALAYSIA), less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal, hierarchical positions. As such, the Power Distance Index Hofstede defines does not reflect an objective difference in power distribution, but rather the way people perceive power differences. In Europe, Power Distance tends to be lower in Northern countries and higher in Southern and Eastern parts. There seems to be an admittedly disputable correlation with predominant religions.

Hofstede’s Power distance Index measures the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions(like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality(more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. For example, Germany has a 35 on the cultural scale of Hofstede’s analysis. Compared to Arab countries where the power distance is very high(80) and Austria where it very low(11), Germany is somewhat in the middle. Germany does not have a large gap between the wealthy and the poor, but have a strong belief in equality for each citizen. Germans have the opportunity to rise in society.

On the other hand, the power distance in the United States scores a 40 on the cultural scale. The United States exhibits a more unequal distribution of wealth compared to German society. As the years go by it seems that the distance between the ‘have’ and ‘have-nots’ grows larger and larger. THE INDEX  HAS  A  HIGHER  UNEQUAL

VALUE  IN   THE  ASIAN  COUNTRIES,

WHERE  THE  CULTURE  /  RELIGION

HAVE  BIG  IMPACT   ON  THE  FAMILIES.

SO  IT  IS  ACCEPTED  AS  PART  OF  LIFESTYLE.

======================================

Power Distance Index                     

1-20   21-40   41-60   61-80   81-100   101-120          

Country   PDI   IDV   MAS   UAI   LTO                           

Malaysia   104   26   50   36         

Guatemala   95   6   37   101         

Panama   95   11   44   86         

Philippines   94   32   64   44   19      

Mexico   81   30   69   82         

Venezuela   81   12   73   76         

China   80   20   66   40   118      

Egypt   80   38   52   68         

Iraq   80   38   52   68         

Kuwait   80   38   52   68         

Lebanon   80   38   52   68         

Libya   80   38   52   68         

Saudi Arabia   80   38   52   68         

United Arab Emirates   80   38   52   68         

Ecuador   78   8   63   67         

Indonesia   78   14   46   48         

Ghana   77   20   46   54   16      

India   77   48   56   40   61      

Nigeria   77   20   46   54   16      

Sierra Leone   77   20   46   54   16      

Singapore   74   20   48   8   48      

Brazil   69   38   49   76   65      

France   68   71   43   86         

Hong Kong   68   25   57   29   96      

Poland   68   60   64   93         

Colombia   67   13   64   80         

El Salvador   66   19   40   94         

Turkey   66   37   45   85         

Belgium   65   75   54   94         

Ethiopia   64   27   41   52   25      

Kenya   64   27   41   52   25      

Peru   64   16   42   87         

Tanzania   64   27   41   52   25      

Thailand   64   20   34   64   56      

Zambia   64   27   41   52   25      

Chile   63   23   28   86         

Portugal   63   27   31   104         

Uruguay   61   36   38   100         

Greece   60   35   57   112         

South Korea   60   18   39   85   75      

Iran   58   41   43   59         

Taiwan   58   17   45   69   87      

Czech Republic   57   58   57   74         

Spain   57   51   42   86         

Pakistan   55   14   50   70         

Japan   54   46   95   92   80      

Italy   50   76   70   75         

Argentina   49   46   56   86         

South Africa   49   65   63   49         

Hungary   46   55   88   82         

Jamaica   45   39   68   13         

United States   40   91   62   46   29      

Netherlands   38   80   14   53   44      

Australia   36   90   61   51   31      

Costa Rica   35   15   21   86         

Germany   35   67   66   65   31      

United Kingdom   35   89   66   35   25      

Switzerland   34   68   70   58         

Finland   33   63   26   59         

Norway   31   69   8   50   20      

Sweden   31   71   5   29   33      

Ireland   28   70   68   35         

New Zealand   22   79   58   49   30      

Denmark   18   74   16   23         

Israel   13   54   47   81         

Austria   11   55   79   70       

############################################

2. what are some of the major factors to take into consideration when picking a country for setting up an e-commerce business?why do trading blocks such as Mercosur, ASEAN and the European Union present significant potential for e-commerce businesses?

what are some of the major factors to take into consideration when picking a country for setting up an e-commerce business

External Factors

1.Culture

Culture is always viewed as a collective phenomenon. People learn patterns of thinking, feeling, and potential acting from living within a defined social environment, normally typified by country .

In Hong Kong, people use the Internet as a social communication device. Conversely, in the U.S, they tend to use the Internet more for product information search purpose . E-Commerce is using the Internet to develop more market and enhance more customers with a low cost of investment. However, the purposes of using the Internet are different because of cultural differences. Moreover, Chinese like to have face-to-face communication when they do the shopping as to get the best deal from the shop  but most of Japanese do not ask for any discount and have little conversation when they go shopping. This leads to the following hypothesis:

H1. Culture is an external factor, which is out of the context of business management but is critical to the success of E-Commerce. ----------------------------------------

2.Personal Characteristic The amount of self-judgment time could convince anyone to shop online. Since the E-Commerce web site provides information and price comparison, customers who take time to make decision before buying may often go shopping online. This we propose:

H2. Personal characteristic of online customer is an external factor, which is out of the context of business management but is critical to the success of E-Commerce.

-------------------------------------------- 3.Language Since E-Commerce is a borderless electronic market, one important issue is language of customers. The number of Non-English Internet users is twice the number of English Internet users and GDP(Gross Domestic Product) of Non-English Internet users is twice that of English Internet users . To attract the customer to go shopping online must consider the language of customers. This will lead to increase in number of online customers. Therefore, another hypothesis is:

H3. Language is an external factor, which is out of the context of business management but is critical to the success of E-Commerce. ----------------------------------------

4.Religion E-Commerce Times  reported that the religion Web sites have been growing up rapidly. They provide several services, products, and information relating to religion such as Bible book, Islam Muslims Books and Christian web design for churches. The fastest-growing religion sites during the month included Christianitytoday.com, Christianbook.com, Catholic.org and Jewishworldreview.org. In addition, between February and March, the number of Internet users who visited religion sites at home or at work grew from 4.2 percent to 6.4 percent of the total online population, 52.4 percent increase. The religion has influenced on the services and products provided on the Internet, and it has attracted the Internet users to visit the Web site. Thus, we propose:

H4. Religion is an external factor, which is out of the context of business management but is critical to the success of E-Commerce. --------------------------------------------

5.Government support

Singapore government has supported the Internet and E-Commerce vigorously. From IDC forecast of Internet commerce revenue in Singapore cited , it increased thirty times from 1998 to 1999. Conversely, Indonesia government has passively supported the Internet and E-Commerce. The Internet commerce revenue increased five times from 1998 to 1999. This could be an example of government support that shows the potential critical success factor of E-Commerce. Thus, we propose the final hypothesis:

H5. Government support is an external factor, which is out of the context of business management but is critical to the success of E-Commerce.

----------------------------------------------- Future work

After the external factors are proposed, the next step is to conduct the research methodology, and research model, which will include the data collection, sampling, measurement, and result analysis in order to fulfill this research.

This study may bring up some interesting results, which can be a guideline for the business to conduct the E-Commerce, a support of E-Commerce strategy planning, and a new E-Commerce business model.

========

E-commerce---INTERNAL.

1.DEVELOPING  A  PLAN FOR  E-COMMERCE.

What to consider when setting up e-commerce systems in your business

-------------------------------------------------------

2.CREATING  AN  ONLINE  SHOP.

The key issues to consider when creating an online shop

----------------------------------------------------------

3.DEVELOPING  OPTIMISATION  OF SEARCH ENGINE.

Learn how to use search engine optimisation to improve your website's ranking on search engine results pages

------------------------------------------------------------

4.DEVELOPING  PER  CLICK

How to use pay per click so that users will click through to your website when they seek your products online

--------------------------------------------------------

5.DEVELOPING  ONLINE PAYMENTS  SYSTEM

How online payments work and how to set up a payment facility

--------------------------------------------------------

6.SERVICING  SYSTEM  FOR CUSTOMER ORDERS The main issues to consider when delivering products to online customers once a purchase has been made

------------------------------------------------------------

7.FINALIZATION  OF  LEGAL  REGULATIONS Regulations you need to comply with when undertaking e-commerce and e-marketing activities

--------------------------------------------------------------

8.DEVELOPMENT  OF  A  E-MARKETING  PLAN

What are the key components of an e-marketing plan and what benefits can such a plan deliver to your business

-----------------------------------------------------------------

9.DEVELOPMENT  OF  CRM

Develop your e-marketing plan to improve existing customer relationships, attract new customers and boost sales

------------------------------------------------------

10.DEVELOPMENT  OF  E-COMMERCE  SECURITY SYSTEMS

What the security threats to your IT systems might be and advice on how to tackle them

-------------------------------------------------------

===================================================

why do trading blocks such as Mercosur, ASEAN and the European Union present significant potential for e-commerce businesses?

THE  MAIN  REASONS  BEING:

-they  are  trading  nations.

-they  export and  import wide range  of  goods.

-they  have sound banking  system.

-they have  good  cyber laws.

-their  governments  are  supportive  of  e-commerce.

-they  can  procure  the Best practice in web design

-sound Trading online - understanding e-commerce contracts

-they  have  the  Benefits of intranets and extranets

-they have  the E-marketplaces, online auctions and exchanges

-they  can Manage overseas suppliers

-Open source software

-system  for Maintaining your web content and technology

-Securing your e-commerce systems

-can Manage risk in e-commerce

etc etc

############################################################

3.identify three small business barriers to internationalization. if i was a recently hired manager of a small business facing great opportunities in a foreign market ,how would i go about overcoming these barriers? Critical barriers in the process of internationalization may generally be divided into three groups: general market risks, commercial risks and political risks. General market risks General market risks include the following: l comparative market distance; l competition from other firms in foreign markets; l differences in product usage in foreign markets; l language and cultural differences; l difficulties in finding the right distributor in the foreign market; l differences in product specifications in foreign markets; l complexity of shipping services to overseas buyers. TO  MANAGE  THE GENERAL  MARKET  RISKS

-an orientation program  on foreign markets.

-an  indepth-training  about the product  usage/applications.

-an  orientation in  managing  cultural  issues.

-a  study of  local  documentation process/procedures.

-A VISIT  TO  THE FOREIGN  COUNTRIES

TO  STUDY  FIRST  HAND  THE  DISTRIBUTION

SYSTEM.

===========================================

Commercial risks The following fall into the commercial risks group: l exchange rate fluctuations when contracts are made in a foreign currency; l failure of export customers to pay due to contract dispute, bankruptcy, refusal to accept the product or fraud; l delays and/or damage in the export shipment and distribution process; l difficulties in obtaining export financing. TO  MANAGE  THE COMMERCIAL  RISKS

-a  broad  exposure  on  the  foreign currency  risks.

-a  broad  exposure  to  various  transaction  risks.

TO  ASSIST  YOU  ON THE  JOB,

EMPLOY  AN  INTERNAL   COMMERCIAL  EXECUTIVE.

========================================

Political risks Among the political risks resulting from intervention by home and host country governments are the following: l foreign government restrictions; l national export policy; l foreign exchange controls imposed by host governments that limit the opportunities for foreign customers to make payment; l lack of governmental assistance in overcoming export barriers; l lack of tax incentives for companies that export; l high value of the domestic currency relative to those in export markets; l high foreign tariffs on imported products; l confusing foreign import regulations and procedures; l complexity of trade documentation; l enforcement of national legal codes regulating exports; • civil strife, revolution and wars disrupting foreign markets

TO  MANAGE  THE  POLITICAL RISKS

-a  broad  TRAINING  on  the  POLITICAL   risks.

-a  broad  exposure  to  various  OVERSEAS  OPERATIONAL  risks.

TO  ASSIST  YOU  ON THE  JOB,

EMPLOY  AN  EXTERNAL  CONSULTANT..

#########################################

4. discuss the conditions when a transational or international form is likely to out compete a multidomestic or regional strategist. contrast this with the opposite situation where the multidomestic is most likely to be sucessful.

THIS QUESTION  IS  OUT  OF  MY  EXPERTISE

AREA.

######################################  
Kent
 
Posts: 51
Joined: Wed Jan 08, 2014 10:48 am

International Business

Postby Betserai » Sat Dec 03, 2016 8:18 am

1.discuss Hofsted's national cultures dimentions and recommended leadership styles. pick one type of the recommendations(e.g high power distance and low uncertainity avoidence) and discuss why the specific recommended leadership style works.

2. what are some of the major factors to take into consideration when picking a country for setting up an e-commerce business?why do trading blocks such as Mercosur, ASEAN and the European Union present significant potential for e-commerce businesses?

3.identify three small business barriers to internationalization. if i was a recently hired manager of a small business facing great opportunities in a foreign market ,how would i go about overcoming these barriers? 4. discuss the conditions when a transational or international form is likely to out compete a multidomestic or regional strategist. contrast this with the opposite situation where the multidomestic is most likely to be sucessful.  
Betserai
 
Posts: 46
Joined: Sun Jan 12, 2014 7:14 am


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