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Information Systems For Managers

Workers Compensation Law Discussion

Information Systems For Managers

Postby Awstin » Mon Nov 28, 2016 9:49 pm

Q.1   How does computerized Personnel Information Systems help in managing human resources more effectively?

Q.2   What types of resources are used in an information system? How information systems can contribute for total quality management?

Q.3   What are the standardized protocols  for call control and media mapping in network multimedia communication over packet-based networks? Describe them!  
Posts: 44
Joined: Tue Jan 21, 2014 2:51 pm

Information Systems For Managers

Postby Stanly » Wed Nov 30, 2016 8:03 am






Q.3. How does computerized Personnel Information Systems help in managing human resources more effectively? significance of Information System in HRM

HRIS, or Human resource information system, is a  solution for  businesses to help automate and manage their HR, payroll, management and accounting activities. HRIS generally should provide the capability to more effectively plan, control and manage HR costs; achieve improved efficiency and quality in HR decision making; and improve employee and managerial productivity and effectiveness.

HRIS offers HR, payroll, benefits, training, recruiting and compliance solutions. Most are flexibly designed with integrated databases, a comprehensive array of features, and powerful reporting functions and analysis capabilities that you need to manage your workforce. This can give back hours of the HR administrator’s day previously spent attending to routine employee requests. They also facilitate communication processes and save paper by providing an easily-accessible, centralized location for company policies, announcements, and links to external URL’s. Employee activities such as time-off requests and W-4 form changes can be automated, resulting in faster approvals and less paperwork.

HRIS    can enable  the   system   and   OFFER -ability  to  collect  qualtitative informations

-ability  to collect  quantitative informations

-ability  to  handle wide range of  functionalities

-ability  to store

-ability  to track

-ability  to  monitor

-ability  to track variances

-ability  to  provide  trends

etc etc.



The information  that  can be  used  for   various  purposes,

-strategic HR planning

-delivering increased  productivity

-reducing  service cycles

-increasing  the  understanding  of  ORGANIZATION   HR  needs

-facilitating business and  HR  process re-engineering.


INFORMATION    can  also  be used across the  organization  as an  information

utility  to

-support  policy making

-meet  regulatory  and  legislative requirements

-support  research  and  development

-support  consistent and  rapid  decision  making

-enable  effective  and efficient  utilization  of resources

-identify  and  manage  risks

-evaluate  and document quality, performance and achievements.



The  availability  of  information is  fundamental  to  the  decision making process. Decisions  are  made within the organization at






The  information  needs and decision making  activities  of the  

various  levels of  management


Strategic business  direction

-information  for  strategically positioning  the  organization

-competitive  analysis and  performance evaluation,

-strategic  planning and policy,

-external factors that  influence  the  direction



Organizational and operational functions

-information  for  coordination  of  work units

-information  for  delivery  programmes

-evaluation  of  resources usage

-budget control

-problem  solving

-operational  planning



Programme  management within units

-information  for  implementing programmes

-information  for  managing   programmes

-management   of  resources usage

-project scheduling

-problem  solving

-operational  planning



Activity management -information for  routine  decision  making

-information  for  problem solving

-information  for  service delivery




The  HRIS  management  oriented  support  systems   provide support

to  various  levels  of  management. Executive  Information  Systems  allow  executives to see where  a

problem  or  opportunity  exists.

Decision  Support  Systems are  used  by  mid-level management  

to support  the  solution  of  problems that  require judgement

by  the  problem solver.

Line  Managers   use Management  Reporting Systems  for  

routine operational  information.























-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  Identifying strategic shifts and positioning  WITH   HR  in anticipation of several possible outcomes – scenario planning --is a core part of our strategic and tactical planning. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO  SEE  Changes in market conditions, technical advances, and economic issues will all affect THE  INDUSTRY /  BUSINESS   HR  SITUATIONS  in the future. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO   find the most effective  HR strategies in order to succeed in these challenging times. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------





-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  THAT  enables  to provide  valuable understanding of the opportunities, challenges, potential pitfalls and HR  implications


-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  WHICH   helps organizations realize the most value from their HR   assets. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



-PROVIDE  INFORMATION   FOR the execution of effective HR  ROLE  in  business planning and sound management usually defines these differences in profitability.


-PROVIDE   INFORMATION  TO   analyze and prioritize the  HR   DRIVERS  to help to  achieve a superior competitive position. Vital to this process is an understanding of the economic advantages of scale and scope. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDES   INFORMATION  FOR  Operational excellence results in the attainment of world-class quality and productivity in the delivery of services .


-PROVIDES  INFORMATION  to develop a clear understanding of their operating HR  practices and associated costs, particularly relative to competitors. ==========================================================







-Strategic  HRM  Plann

-HR Strategies and Policies.

-Competency-based HR

-Knowledge management



-Job analysis

-job Role/

-Job Description.

-Job specifications

-Job enrichment  PROGRAMS

-Job  rotation  PROGRAMS



-recruitment  PROGRAMS/DETAILS


-induction  PROGRAMS

-orientation  PROGRAMS



-employee  engagement  


-organization  culture  CHANGE  PROGRAMS

-organization  development  PLANS



-org. designss.

-org. structure.

===================================== HUMAN RESOURCING

-HR plan

-manpower  plan

-succession  plan

-talent management  plan



-performance appraisals systems

-performance  management    processes.



-org. learning  programs

-training  plans

-education  plans

-development  plans

-Training  evaluation plans/  data

-e learning  programs

-management  development  plans

-career planning /development  plans



-job  evaluation  results

-  reward  management plan

-administration  of  rewards

-benefits  plans

============================== EMPLOYEE  RELATIONS

-organization  communications

-employee  communications.

-staff  amenities  plans

================================= HEALTH AND  SAFETY.

-OHS     plans/ programs


HRIS   PROVIDES  METRICS    OFFER  HELP   AT    four  levels  of perspectives.

1. Strategic Perspective — the results of strategic initiatives managed by the HR group. The strategic perspective focuses on the measurement of the effectiveness of major strategy-linked people goals. EXAMPLES -change management capability of the organization -organization compensation and benefit package with respect market rate. -organization culture survey -HR BUDGET / ACTUAL -HR COSTS BENCHMARK EXTERNALLY -HR annual resource plan. -skills/ competency level etc --------------------------------------

2.Operational Perspective — the operational tasks at which HR must excel. This piece of the Balanced Scorecard provides answers to queries about the effectiveness and efficiency in running HR processes that are vital to the organization. EXAMPLES -time taken to fill vacancies -cost per recruitment promotions -absenteeism by job category -accident costs -accident safety ratings -training cost per employee -training hours per employee -average employee tenure in the company -lost time due to injuries -no. of recruiting advertising programs -no. of employees put through training. -turnover rate -attrition rate etc -------------------------------------------------

3.Financial Perspective — this perspective tries to answer questions relating to the financial measures that demonstrate how people and the HR function add value to the organization. ---------------------------------------------------

EXAMPLES -compensation and benefits per employee -sales per employee -profit per employee -cost of injuries -HR expenses per employee -turnove cost -employee '' workers compensation costs'' etc -------------------------------------------

4.Customer Perspective — this focuses on the effectiveness of HR from the internal customer viewpoint. Are the customers of HR satisfied with their service; are service level agreements met; EXAMPLES -employee perception of the HRM -employee perception of the company , as an employer -customer/market perception of the company, as an employer. etc =======================================================


of   what  HRIS   CAN  PROVIDE  HRM














1.ANNUAL  TOTAL  COMPENSATION INCREASE RATE [%] [this year vs last year]

2.ANNUAL  TURNOVER  RATE.[this year  v s  last year]



5.COMPENSATION & BENEFITS   PER EMPLOYEE [ this year vs last year]




9.COMPENSATION & BENEFITS   BY  LEVELS  OF  STAFF -senior mgnt/ executives/middle mgnt/ junior mgnt/supervisors/staff etc.







PROVIDED  BY  HRIS  FOR  HRM  for  productivity improvements.

1   HR  UTILIZATION        %   TOTAL  PAYROLL  $ / TOTAL  SALES  $                     

2.   HR  PRODUCTIVITY       %   TOTAL  EMPLOYMENT COST $/TOTAL                  PRODUCTION  VOLUME  IN $    X  100                     

3.   HR  BUDGET       %    ACTUAL   $ / BUDGET   $      X   100                      

4'.   ACCIDENT  COSTS       %   CURRENT  ACTUAL  $   /    LAST YEAR  $  X  100                     

5'.    ACCIDENT  SAFETY       %   CURRENT  ACTUAL  $   /    LAST YEAR  $  X  100         RATINGS                           

6'.    EMPLOYEE        %   EMPLOYEE  BENEFITS $ /  TOTAL PAYROLL  $ X100         BENEFITS                                    EMPLOYEE BENEFITS  $ /TOTAL SALES  $    X 100                                     

7'.   HR  BUDGET        %   ACTUAL  HR EXPENSES  $ / TOTAL SALES $ X 100         sales effectiveness                           

8'.    HR  EXPENSES          $   TOTAL HR EXPENSES $ /  TOTAL  NO. OF EMPLOYEES         per head                           

9'.   HR EXPENSES        %   HR  EXPENSES  $ /  TOTAL  EXPENSES  $ X  100         cost effectivenss                           

10'.   NO.OF  COURSES       %   ACTUAL CONDUCTED  / PLANNED   X  100         CONDUCTED                           

11.   NO. OF  SAFETY       %   ACTUAL CONDUCTED  / PLANNED   X  100         training  programs                           

12.   TRAINING  DAYS       %   ACTUAL  TRAINING DAYS /  PLANNED  X 100         EFFECTIVENESS                           

13.   EMPLOYEES      %   ACTUAL TAKING PART / PLANNED  X 100         involvement in train                           

14.   SICK DAYS       nos.   TOTAL  SICKDAYS  TAKEN/ TOTAL EMPLOYEES         managemeent effectiveness                           

15.   STAFF  orientation       %   NO. OF NEW STAFF LEAVING IN  THREE MONTHS/         EFFECTIVENESS        TOTAL   NO.  OF NEW STAFF  ORIENTED                       X  100                                    

16.   TIME TO  FILL AN    NO.DAYS     TOTAL  NO  OF  DAYS / TOTAL  NO  positions filled         OPEN POSITION                                          

17.   TURNOVER  BY       %    TURNOVER  / TOTAL RECRUITMENTS  X100         RECRUITING source                     BY  EACH  SOURCE                                    

18.   TURNOVER  BY        %   TURNOVER  /  TOTAL  EMPLOYEES BY   EACH         EACH  JOB      CATEGORY         CATEGORY        X   100                                    

19.   WORKERS       %   ACTUAL  $ /  PLANNED BUDGET $   X  100         çompensation costs                                          

20.   HR  STAFFING      NO.   TOTAL  HR STAFF / TOTAL EMPLOYEES         EFFICIENCY                         


What Human Resource Management activities and programs can impact productivity


HERE  ARE   THE  HRM  activities/ programs  that  can  impact  organization  productivity,


*change management capability of the organization -HR  can improve  the  management  competency  through training/development

programs,which  will improve  the  knowledge / skills  and

hence  the  effectiveness/efficiency  productivity.


*organization compensation and benefit package with respect market rate.

-HR  can  make  the  compensation package market oriented  to  retail

talent , who will contribute to the  effectiveness/productivity. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

*HR BUDGET / ACTUAL -HR  by keeping   the  HR EXPENSES  within  the  HR budget

by  functioning  productively, can  contribute  to  the effectiveness/ productivity.


*HR COSTS BENCHMARK EXTERNALLY -HR  can conduct  benchmark  at  the  competitive  levels on such  factors  like



*skill  levels

*knowledge levels  


can  help and  contribute  to the  effectiveness/ /efficiency  /  productivity.


*skills/ competency level -By providing  continual  training/development/coaching/mentoring

programs, can raise  the  skills/competence index  of  the  workforce

which  can help  and  contribute  to  the  effectiveness/ /efficiency  / productivity.


*time taken to fill vacancies -minimise  the  time  taken  to  recruit/select  employees

for various  positions, you  can  help  and  contribute to the effectiveness / /efficiency  /productivity.


*cost per recruitment promotions -by  reducing  the cost  of   recruitment promotions

through  effective  media  planning, you can help and contribute  to  the  effectiveness/productivity.


*absenteeism by job category -reducing  the  employee  absenteeism  rate  by  HR  introducing the  motivational  and  employee engagement  programs

you can help and  contribute  to  the  effectiveness/  /efficiency  /productivity.


*accident costs -reducing  the workplace accidents by  HR introducing continual

safety  training  programs, can reduce accident  expenses,

you can help and  contribute  to  the  effectiveness/productivity.


*training cost per employee

-HR  can reduce   training  expenses by selective/ effective

and  tailoring  of  training and  development  programs

you can help and  contribute  to  the  effectiveness/  /efficiency  /productivity.


*average employee tenure in the company -HR  can increase  the  employee tenure in the  company

thorugh  loyalty programs/ effective  performance  management programs

you can help and  contribute  to  the  effectiveness/productivity.


*turnover rate -HR  can decrease  the  turnover rate by effective  employee engagement

programs and  performance management  programs

you can  help and  contribute to  the  effectiveness/ productivity


*attrition rate -HR  can decrease  the  attrition  rate by effective   induction/orientation

programs   and  employee engagement  programs

you can  help and  contribute  to  the  effectiveness/ productivity.





-R/C  can  reduce absenteeism  by  motivational  programs.

-R/C  can  reduce absenteeism  by  incentivation   scheme.




==================================================== 2.REDUCTION  IN  AVERAGE  RECRUITMENT TIME  [DAYS]

--R/C  can  reduce  recruitment  time by  more  effective  advertisements/contents.

-R/C  can  reduce  recruitment  time  by more selective  media  for  ads.






-R/C  can  decrease  in employee  turnover  thru  effective position specification.

-R/C  can  decrease  in employee turnover  thru  selecting  the  best fit.

-  R/C  can decrease  in  employee turnover thru  effective  induction  program.

-R/C  can decrease  in employee turnover  thru  effective  orientation program.

-R/C  can  decrease in employee turnover thru  effective  performance appraisal.

-R/C  can decrease  in  employee turnover thru  effective  market  oriented compensation.






-R/C  can  increase  in employee  satisfaction  thru  effective position specification.

-R/C  can  increase  in employee satisfaction   thru  selecting  the  best fit.

-  R/C  can increase  in  employee satisfaction  thru  effective  induction  program.

-R/C  can increase  in employee satisfaction  thru  effective  orientation program.

-R/C  can  increase in employee satisfaction  thru  effective  performance appraisal,

and  performance  management/ promotions.

-R/C  can decrease  in  employee satisfaction  thru  effective  market  oriented compensation.

and  pay  for  performance  incentives.





-R/C  can  increase  in employee  tenure  thru  effective position specification.

-R/C  can  increase  in employee  tenure    thru  selecting  the  best fit.

-  R/C  can increase  in  employee tenure  thru  effective  induction  program.

-R/C  can increase  in employee tenure   thru  effective  orientation program.

-R/C  can  increase in employee tenure   thru  effective  performance appraisal,

and  performance  management/ promotions.

-R/C  can decrease  in  employee  tenure  thru  effective  market  oriented compensation.

and  pay  for  performance  incentives.





Q.4. What types of resources are used in an information system? How information systems can contribute for total quality management? 1.Data

-Bare facts and figures

2.Information -Data that is organized into meaningful context

-It is processed data

-Supports the decision making process

-reduces uncertainty about a situation or event


-Human capacity(potential  & actual ability) to take effective action in varied and uncertain situations. -It is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning. It involves three activities:

a] Data Acquisition

- Data is initially recorded and later verified for accuracy and authenticity. This is called dta capture.

-Data is captured by punching with keyboard or scanning with scanning devices, facts from documents on which they were recorded.

-Data captured is organized in data files. Each file contains records relating to various data elements(fields) expressed with the help of different symbols(characters).(b) Data Transformation

-It is done by performing any of the following operations:

-Rearranging: also called sorting of data

-Classifying -Calculating


(c) Management of Information

The processed data maybe either communicated to end user or maybe stored for future reference. One decides the report format, appropriate channel of communication to provide information.

If stored, one decides to store it on some mass storage.

An assembly of inter-related elements comprising a unified whole. The components(elements) are connected together in order to facilitate the flow of information, matter or energy.

It works towards a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs.

4.What is Information System?

It is an organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, and data resources that stores and retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization.

5.Evolution of Information System

a] Computer Hardware

Refers to computer systems and other associated equipment including the communication links that a modern IT installation may need. One needs to assess the nature of IT needs, the volume of data to be processed, sources of data, complexity of data analysis and impact of other related factors to determine the hardware resources.

b] Computer Software

It is the lifeline of the IT infrastructure and it makes the computer hardware function. It is set of interrelated computer programs.


Collection of facts or events from both internal and external sources represented in the form of symbols, such as digits, alphabets, pictures, graphs, etc.

Capturing, processing and storage of data are the essential functions.

6] Human Resource

They are the catalyst in process of generation of information and thus are very vital. 7]Procedures

It includes the operational and control procedures for the use of IT infrastructure. It contains instructions for users regarding the use of IT infrastructure for day to day activities and for also handling specific situations. 8.Roles of IS

-Supports Business Process and operations

-Provide access to information

-Enhance communications

-Provide decision assistance

-Supports strategies for competitive advantage

-Focuses on competitive priorities. -Summarizing the three major roles of the business applications of IS

9.Types of Information Systems

Two categories depending upon their focus on the kind of activities in a business enterprise

Operations Support Systems

Management Support Systems

10.Operations Support Systems

Focus on the operations of the enterprise

Objective is to improve the operational efficiency

Use internal data primarily

For lower level of managers

Classified into the following categories

Transaction Processing System

Process Control System

Enterprise Collaboration System

11.  Transaction Processing Systems

Focus on the recording and processing of economic events(transactions) It processes transactions in two ways – batch and real-time(or online)

It encompasses the entire gamut of daily routines of the enterprise including financial accounting, inventory control, payroll, sales order processing system.

TPS s were one of the earliest computerized systems that organizations used to capture valuable decision-making data and to conduct every day business.

- Almost all organizations have manual or automated TPS. Examples of TPS Coffee shop



Nasdaq- the e-stock exchange handles up to 1000 stock transaction /second

TPS are considered the backbone of many organizations without it managers couldn’t make basic decisions such as how many items to produce?

- Transaction can be internal or external

Internal: occurring inside the organization

External: occurring outside the company, customer places an order from a company catalog

TPS s become the source of data for other systems in the organization. If analyzed and integrated it will give business key information about new company plans. A better plan how to meet customer needs and preferences.

TPS is a link between the organization and external entities, such as suppliers, customers & distributors.

(a) On-line Transaction Processing(OLTP)

the data input device is directly linked to the system to be processed. “some times linked to the system via the network or telecommunication.” example Bank ATM, student registration for classes, travel agent flight reservation.

On-line processing is possible because of networks and databases.

(b) Batch Processing   Processing that done on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis or any period of time. 12. Data storage: to store the processed data in proper way. Otherwise data will be usefulness to decision makers.

The kind of processing and type of storage medium are to some extent related.   For example: magnetic tape is often used in batch processing. And magnetic disk used in on-line processing.

13.Output generation Convert data into useful format

Different users need different formats at different times

14.Query support the last step is to query or ask system questions

Characteristics/Features of a Transaction Processing System

Records internal and external transactions that take place in a company

Is used mostly by lower-level managers to make operational decisions

Handles and stores large Volume of Data

Automation of basic operations

Benefits are easily measurable Stores data that are frequently accessed by other systems, i.e. it acts as a source of input for other systems

Is ideal for routine, repetitive tasks

Records transactions in batch mode or on-line

Requires six steps to process a transaction—data entry, validation, data processing, storage, output generation, and query support

15. Process Control System

Monitors & control physical process

16.Enterprise Collaboration Systems

Enhance team and workgroup communication and productivity, and include applications that are sometimes called office automation system. It facilitates the following activities:

Producing outgoing documents(using text processors) storage & retrieval of documents(using document management system) transmission of messages(using message communication systems) scheduling and meeting management(using video conferencing)

17.Management Support System

Information System application focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by managers.

Classified into following categories

Management Information System

Decision Support System

Executive Support System

a) Management Information Systems

Aims at meeting the information needs of managers, particularly with regard to the current and past operations of the enterprise. Offers summary and exception reports on the operations of the enterprise and are also called as operations support systems.

Summary Report :A report that accumulates data from several transactions and presents the results in a condensed form.

Exception Report: A report that outlines any deviations between actual output and expected output.

The main input to an MIS is usually the transaction processing system and other internal company sources

Benefits of MIS:

Provide middle managers with information to make semistructured decisions.

Information generated by an MIS helps managers understand the day-to-day operations of the company

Helps managers implement the tactical goals of the company.

MIS is a group of general-purpose, well-integrated systems that monitor and control the internal operations of an organization.


Summary and exception Information

Operational Control

Focus on Internal Information

Structured and semi-structured Decision

Relationship between a TPS and MIS

The main goal of TPS is to record & process company transaction. While the main goal of MIS is to produce summary & exception reports for making tactical decisions.

The output of a TPS & other company sources are the input of MIS

TPS usually helps managers with operational decisions, while MIS helps managers make tactical decisions over a longer period of time.   However both systems must work together in harmony to meet the company’s information needs.

b) Decision Support System

Gives direct computer support to managers during the decision making process.

- offers flexibility to manager to decide the input data, tool of analysis, depth of analysis and reliance on the outcome of analysis for decision making. The users have full control of the system.

- offers an interactive environment for users and thus permits managers to experiment with data and model to develop the optimal decision making strategy.

It has a User friendly interface report generators and graphical facilities

Flexibility of use in various unexpected decision situation. DSS:- A set of interactive software programs that provide managers with data, tools, and models to make semistructured decisions.

Some activities that a DSS can perform:

Selecting the best loan package to meet your needs.

Identifying an ideal location for a store

DSS uses computer computations and put them into models that systemize decision processes

Components of a Decision Support System

Database management system(DBMS): a piece of software that controls, manages, and maintains internal & external data.

Model management system: a system that stores and processes the models that managers use to make decisions.

Support tools: tools that help users to interact and interface with a decision support system.

Characteristics of a decision support system

A DSS has five main characteristics:

DSS integrates data & models so that it is easier for managers to make good decisions.

DSS helps managers see how decision interrelate and the effects of one decision on others.

It supports a wide variety of decision-making styles.

It helps managers make decisions under dynamic or changing business conditions

DSS allows users to query the system for a specific answers.

Features of a decision support system

A DSS has three features that are extremely useful to managers :

What-if analysis 2. Goal seeking 3.risk analysis What-if analysis: The study of the impact of a change in the input data on the proposed solution. ex. Product pricing

Complex decision because decision maker must consider many internal & external information

A DSS can help manager to answer “what if questions”

What if the price of raw materials increased by 10%

What if the product demand increased

If the competitors reduce the price by 5%

Features of a decision support system con..

Goal seeking: help managers determine what they should do to achieve a certain goal. Ex.1 The goal to increase sales of its top-selling product by 10%. A DSS can show different ways to achieve. Ex.2 What grade should student get to achieve A in the course.

3. Risk analysis: A DSS calculates the risk associated with each alternatives.

Decision Models

Statistical Models allow user to perform a wide range of statistical functions(average, standard deviation, graphic analysis….)

Financial and Accounting Models to measure and assess the financial implications of different alternatives.(profit-or-lose analysis, cost-benefit analysis….)

Production Models help to estimate number of machines to operate, amount of material required to meet the predetermined demand

Marketing Models help marketing managers make a wide variety of decisions(product pricing, store location, advertising strategies..)

Human Resource Models help managers to make decisions that involve in company personnel(assessing training needs estimating future personnel needs evaluating hiring & firing policies. Benefits evaluation of a larger number of alternatives modeling and forecasting becomes easy useful in intra group and inter group communication in depth analysis of data and thus more effective use of data resource

executive  information  system

Top managers do not have the time to study and analyze large volume of data. They need an IS that will analyze the data & present it in elegant manner so they can have quick & effective decisions. The system that deliver high level information in a friendly way is called EIS.

An EIS consists of tools & techniques, such as color graphics, touch screens, voice activated commands, and distribute large volumes of data quickly and effectively.

Provides critical information from both internal and external sources to easy-to-use displays to managers

The managers get tailored made formats they prefer.

Focus more on delivery of information by top managers than generation of information.

The main difference between DSS & EIS is that EIS is used to deliver & display information(information delivery), while DSS is used to analyze a problem(problem solving)

Today many systems are a combination of DSS & EIS, these systems are known as Executive Support System

An EIS has many features that a DSS has, such as drill-down, which allows employees to obtain summary or detailed data with a few simple keystrokes

Applications of EIS

Executive Briefing Personalized Analysis Exceptions Reporting Model based analysis

DSS and EIS Characteristics

DSS and EIS provide middle and top managers with decision support.

Both DSS and EIS are intuitive, interactive, user-friendly systems.

DSS and EIS are menu-driven and often have excellent color and graphic capabilities.

Both systems use internal and external data to solve problems.

A DSS uses internal and external data and different decision-making models to provide managers with alternatives to a given problem. An EIS provides managers with expert information in the form of analysis and reports.

Both systems are equipped with decision-making tools such as “what-if” analysis and ‘goal seeking”. EIS is also equipped with drill-down capabilities.

A DSS can support both individual and group decision making.  DSS that support group decision making are known as group decision support systems(GDSS).


Artificial Intelligence(AI) and Expert Systems(ES)

Artificial intelligence is a field of computer science that studies the design and development of computer systems that mimic human intelligence.

Intelligence defined as a set of characteristics or attributes.

AI includes several areas of specialization such as

Computer vision: the computers ability to recognize & identify objects.

Speech recognition: the computers ability to understand a human voice.

Natural language:the ability to communicate with a computer the way the humans communicate with each other.

Robots: machines capable of human like movement.

Expert System

One of the AI fields is Expert System(ES)

Expert systems are computer programs that capture the knowledge of a human expert and use it to solve complex problems.

Knowledge appears in different forms in an organization such as an innovative ideas for a products, a new way to motivate employees, a new production method…..

The main goal of ES is to capture knowledge of experts in all forms and use it to solve complex problems of an organization in a relatively narrow domain.

ES then are versatile and can help with many kinds of problems.

It attempts to represent knowledge of human experts in the form of heursitics.

1. Components of an ES Knowledge base

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge base consists of facts, theorem, cases, forms, texts, graphics, spreadsheets, principles & rules, that experts use to solve a given problem.

The information in the knowledge base comes from many sources such as the human experts, books, journals, databases & others. Managers also can gain knowledge from observation, formal & informal interviews & questionnaires. This is known as knowledge acquisition.

Knowledge acquisition: the process of acquiring knowledge from different sources. These processes usually hard to do and time consuming. Knowledge acquisition is viewed a bottle neck in building expert systems.

Components of an ES knowledge base

Knowledge representation

The process of representing the knowledge of experts in a language that the computer can understand.

There are different approaches to knowledge representation on of the most popular ways to represent knowledge is using IF – THEN rules.

Expert system that use IF-THEN rules are called rule based systems.

Example   IF car lights were left on AND car doesn't start         THEN the battery is dead(99%)

Characteristics of an Expert System

An expert system is a software program that captures the knowledge and problem-solving skills of a human expert.

Expert systems are ideally suited for problems that require knowledge, intuition, and judgment.

Expert systems, unlike DSS and EIS, can replace the decision maker.

The three main components in an expert system are the knowledge base, the inference engine, and the user interface.

Benefits of an Expert System

Coding of expertise

Enhanced understanding of business process

Timely availability of expertise

Easy replication

Strategic Application

Used for managing knowledge in organization, supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information

Idea is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization documented base of facts, sources of information and solutions.

A KM System could be any of the following:

* Document based

* Provide network maps

* AI technologies which use a customized representation scheme to represent the problem domain.

KMS Cycle

Knowledge – information that is contextual, relevant and actionable. Knowledge is information in action and is exercised to solve a problem

Knowledge is of two types – Explicit knowledge- deals with more objective, rational and technical knowledge

Implicit Knowledge- cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning

MIS focus on explicit knowledge

KMS refers to the use of modern technologies – the internet, intranets, extranets.


Sharing of valuable organizational information reducing redundant work reducing training time for new employees

Strategic Information Systems

Definition: Computer systems at any level of an organization that change the goals, processes, products, services, or environmental relationships to help the organization gain a competitive advantage.

Strategic information systems profoundly alter the way a firm conducts its business or the very business of the firm itself.

It can be of any kind of information system(DSS, TPS, MIS, etc.)




- Access wider geographic markets by complying with a  recognised standard. - New customers who require ISO 9000 compliance. - Reduce customer rejection of products/services because of poor quality. - Improve customer loyalty. - Reduce or eliminate repetition of work. - Reduce warranty and customer support costs. - Reduce management time spent on “putting out fires”. - Improve productivity by “doing it right the first time”. ===========================================



WHAT  DOES  TQM   OFFER : -Developing a corporate quality policy. -Designing and implementing a quality system. -Developing measures for capturing quality costs and benefits from improved quality. -Encouragement of teamwork and participation of the management and the workforce. -Continuous education and training to foster employee attitudes, management beliefs and value system. -Usage of problem solving tools and techniques. -Benchmarking of business results and processes. -Improvement of managerial and technical processes. -Integrating the customers’ and suppliers’ expectations. -Carrying out quality audits and reviews on a continuous basis. =====================================================


TQM   leads to a synergy of benefits to  the  firm. 1.A philosophy that improves business from top to bottom

[everybody  in  the organization  is involved  towards the same objective]



2.A focused, systematic and structured approach to enhancing customer's satisfaction

[helps  to increase  sales  /  profit  of  the  organization ] THE  INFORMATION SYSTEM  PROVIDES  THE  MARKETING  DRIVE.


3.Process improvement methods that reduce or eliminate

the problems i.e. non conformance costs

[improves  the   efficiency  of  the  process  and  better  results]



4.Tools and techniques for improvement - quality operating system

[improved  working  methods  for   improves  results ]


improvement  DRIVE.


5.Delivering what the customer want's in terms of service, product and the whole experience

[helps  to  tailor  the  product/service  to match  customer  requirements and the  customer  satisfaction]

THE  INFORMATION SYSTEM  PROVIDES  THE  customer information  for  the   satisfaction DRIVE.


6.Intrinsic motivation and improved attitudes throughout the workforce

[improved  work conditions  means  employees  are  motivated  to  perform better]


the rewards / motivation.


7.Workforce is proactive - prevention orientated

[it  helps  to  prevent  accidents / quality   rejects  etc ]

THE  INFORMATION SYSTEM  PROVIDES  THE  accident data  / quality  data to create  prevention  DRIVE.


8.Enhanced communication

[it  encourages  discussion  among  employees/  between managers and employees]

THE  INFORMATION SYSTEM  PROVIDES  THE  communication improvement  DRIVE.


9.Reduction in waste and rework

[continual discussion /continual  improvements / proactive  attitude helps  to  prevent  waste / rework/ reduces  rejects.]



10.Increase in process ownership- employee involvement and empowerment

[setting  of  quality circles/ problem solving teams  improves

the  employee  involvement    and   empowers  employee to make  decisions]


for  better  problem  solving.


11.Everyone from top to bottom educated.

[TQM involves  continual  training  at  all  levels  which

helps  the  development  of  the  individuals ]


12.Improved customer/supplier relationships(internally & externall)

[TQM  takes   the  system  across  all  working  units

including  all  departments internally  and  external   stakeholders integration]


13.Market competitiveness

[TQM  helps  to  improve  the  customer  servicing  and  helps

the  competitive  positioning  of  the  company in   the  market]


14.TQM   Through education, management and staff are given the tools to achieve all the above. Education provides for guided innovation from all levels. Training, which is a cost, shows a commitment by management .


15. TQM    HELPS  Individual staff self improvement, which is a motivator. ========================

Direct benefits of   are as follows: - Increased pride of workmanship among individual workers - Increased readiness - Improved sustainability caused by extended time between equipment failures - Greater mission survivability - Better justification for budgets because of more efficient operations - Streamlined maintenance and production processes. The bottom line of    is “more bang for the buck.” The concept behind      revolves around a change from management by results to management by process(quality) improvement. Managers are tasked with con- tinuously improving each and every process in their organization. That means combining quantitative methods and human resource management techniques to improve customer-supplier .



Q.5. What are the standardized protocols for call control and media mapping in network multimedia communication over packet-based networks? Describe them! I HAVE  NO EXPERTISE  WITH  THIS ONE.

Posts: 50
Joined: Tue Feb 18, 2014 8:20 pm

Information Systems For Managers

Postby fu95 » Sun Dec 04, 2016 3:36 am

Q.1   How does computerized Personnel Information Systems help in managing human resources more effectively?

Q.2   What types of resources are used in an information system? How information systems can contribute for total quality management?

Q.3   What are the standardized protocols  for call control and media mapping in network multimedia communication over packet-based networks? Describe them!  
Posts: 54
Joined: Sat Oct 06, 2012 9:38 am

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