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Human Resource Development

Workers Compensation Law Discussion

Human Resource Development

Postby Stuart » Sat Nov 12, 2016 9:53 am

1. explain the concept of a career. Describe the strategies adopted for career development in your organisation or any organization you are gamiliar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to

2. discuss how organization development plan is formulated. Describe the system of training and organizational development of an organization you are familiar with.  Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.
Posts: 45
Joined: Sun Jan 19, 2014 1:01 am

Human Resource Development

Postby Brus » Sun Nov 13, 2016 4:04 pm

1. explain the concept of a career. Describe the strategies adopted for career development in your organisation or any organization you are gamiliar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to

2. discuss how organization development plan is formulated. Describe the system of training and organizational development of an organization you are familiar with.  Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.
Posts: 49
Joined: Sun Feb 23, 2014 3:08 am

Human Resource Development

Postby Chadd » Fri Nov 18, 2016 9:10 am






1) Explain the concept of a career. Describe the strategies adopted for career development in

your organization or any organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organization

you are referring to.


-is  an  outcome  of   CAREER  MANAGEMENT  PROCESS. which    is  an  outcome  of  

-corporate  strategic planning

-corporate  objectives

-corporate strategy.

Hence  you  need  to  review this  in detail. SUCCESSION  planning  is an  element  of   career   management  process.

Career  Planning  is   a  critical  element /  outcome   of   


2.Performance  appraisal  and  

3.''Potential''   assessment  systems.


Outline for Succession Planning/ CAREER  PLANNING Define where you currently are in your succession planning process.

What positions are you planning for? What key people have you designated for succeeding to higher positions? Where are they in their experience, education and training schedules? What has changed since your last review? What other candidates can you identify, either for future needs or to replace people who were in the process and either left your company or did not work out as expected? What has changed inside your company which might alter where you have been planning to go with your succession plan?

How have the current candidates performed to date? What jobs have changed, and how have they changed, since your last review? What new opportunities, technologies and other issues have emerged which may lead to change in the succession plan, its objectives or tactics? Define where you want your succession plan to take you, especially in light of your current strategic plan.

What will you look like in three to five years and what will your key people be doing then? What openings will you need to fill due to attrition, promotion or expansion? What new disciplines will the company require, and how will you fill them? How does your succession plan fit with your expectation of where your company, your markets and your internal situation will likely be going? Define how you will get from where you are today to what you want the company to look like at the end of your current planning horizon.

Who will be involved and what will each be doing? When will they start and end each part of the process and how will you judge their progress? What criteria will be used to determine each candidate’s ongoing fitness for his or her career path? Does each candidate offer and demonstrate continuing potential and progress toward meeting the requirements you have established? On what basis will you determine if someone is not progressing appropriately, and what can you do to help that person develop to the fullest extent? What alternatives can you offer those who are not meeting expectations? Once a plan is in place and people are in the process of being groomed for higher responsibilities and positions, where do you go from here? As indicated above, this is an ongoing process. You establish goals, select candidates, establish training and educational processes, initiate the process of selecting and training with each individual, and monitor developments. As the Simplified Strategic Planning process teaches, you continually update your status, review your assumptions about where you want to go and how you will get there, modify your strategies and the resulting actions/action plans, and continually feed back environmental developments. As your situation changes, you alter your objectives to match the appropriate strategies, make mid-course corrections, and continue your ongoing management processes as a part of the regular course of business.


The process of career planning

Career planning is the key process in career management. It uses all the information provided by the organization's assessments of requirements, the assessments of performance and potential and the management succession plans, and translates it in the form of individual career development programs and general arrangements for management development, career counseling, mentoring and management training.

Career planning ? the competency band approach

It is possible to define career progression in terms of the competencies required by individuals to carry out work at progressive levels of responsibility or contribution. These levels can be described as competency bands.

Competencies would be defined as the attributes and behavioral characteristics needed to perform effectively at each discrete level in a job or career family. The number of levels would vary according to the range of competencies required in a particular job family. For each band, the experience and training needed to achieve the competency level would be defined.

These definitions would provide a career map incorporating 'aiming points' for individuals, who would be made aware of the competency levels they must reach in order to achieve progress in their careers. This would help them to plan their own development, although support and guidance should be provided by their managers, and HR specialists . The provision of additional experience and training could be arranged as appropriate, but it would be important to clarify what individual employees need to do for themselves if they want to progress within the organization.

The advantage of this approach is that people are provided with aiming points and an understanding of what they need to do to reach them. One of the major causes of frustration and job dissatisfaction is the absence of this information.

A competency band career development approach can be linked to Aiming points

1. Competence  band 1 definition         

Basic training and  experience   

2. Competence  band  2  definition

Continuation    of  medium  training  and experience

3.Competence  band  3  definition   Continuation  of advanced training and experience                       

Career planning is for core people as well as high?flyers

The philosophy upon which career plans are based refers not only to advancing careers to meet organizational and individual requirements, but also the need to maximize the potential of the people in the organization in terms of productivity and satisfaction under conditions of change, when development does not necessarily mean promotion.

career planning is for individuals as well as the organization

Career planning procedures are always based on what the organization needs. But they have to recognize that organizational needs will not be satisfied if individual needs are neglected. Career planning has to be concerned with the management of diversity.

Career plans must therefore recognize that:

*   members of the organization should receive recognition as individuals with unique needs, wants, and abilities;

*   individuals are more motivated by an organization that responds to their aspirations and needs;

*   individuals can grow, change and seek new directions if they are given the right opportunities, encouragement and guidance.

Career planning techniques

Career planning uses all the information generated by the succession plans, performance, and potential assessments and self?assessments to develop programs and procedures which are designed to implement career management policies, achieve succession planning objectives and generally improve motivation, commitment and performance. The procedures used are those concerned with:

0 personal development planning .

0 training and management development.

0 mentoring 0 career counseling In addition, career planning procedures may cater for the rising stars by 'fast tracking' them, that is, deliberately accelerating promotion and giving them opportunities to display and enlarge their talents. But these procedures should pay just as much, if not more, attention to those managers who are following the middle route of steady, albeit unspectacular, progression.

1. Career counseling

Performance management processes, should provide for counseling sessions between individuals and their managers. These sessions should give the former the opportunity to discuss their aspirations and the latter the chance to comment on them ? helpfully ? and, at a later stage, to put forward specific

career development proposals to be fed into the overall career management programs.


2.Personal development planning

Personal development planning is carried out by individuals with guidance, encouragement and help from their managers/HRM as required. A personal development plan sets out the actions people propose to take to learn and to develop themselves. They take responsibility for formulating and implementing the plan, but they receive support from the organization and their managers in doing so. The purpose is to provide  a 'self?organized learning framework'. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. MANAGEMENT  DEVELOPMENT   

Formal approaches to management development

The formal approaches to management development include:

*   development on the job through coaching, counseling, monitoring and feedback by managers on a continuous basis associated with the use of performance management processes to identify and satisfy development needs, and with mentoring;

* development through work experience, which includes job rotation, job enlargement, taking part in project teams or task groups, 'action learning', and secondment outside the organization;

*formal training by means of internal or external courses; *structured self?development by following self?managed learning programs agreed as a personal development plan or learning contract with the manager or a management development adviser ? these may include guidance reading or the deliberate extension of knowledge or acquisition of new skills on the job.



Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice which will help to develop the careers of the 'proteges' Allocated to them.

Mentoring is aimed at complementing learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. Mentoring also complements formal training by providing those who benefit from it with individual guidance from experienced managers who are 'wise in the ways of the organization'.

Mentors provide for the person or persons allocated to them :

advice in drawing up self?development programs or learning contracts; general help with learning programs; guidance on how to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to do a new job; advice on dealing with any administrative, technical or people problems individuals meet.

MERITS  OF  Career  Planning  &  Development  Programs. ===========================================


-Knowledge of  various career opportunities / individual priorities.

-Internal promotuions, Up gradation  and  transfers

-Improves  employees  performance

-career  growth  as  professionals

-professional  growth opportunities

-opportunities  for learning

-rewards  for  achievements

-performance  oriented working



-attracting and  retaining  talent

-Availability  of  human  resources

-It ensures  that  people get  equal opportunities  for  growth and  development.

-Enhances  cultural diversity

-Promote organizational goodwill

-roles   are  clarified  in career  counseling .

-more realistic approach of  what  is expected of  them.

-personal  career  planning ability  is increased

-human resource  systems  are  effectively  utilized


To succeed

To function effectively

Have added resources

Sharpen the competencies

Building skills

Adopting contemporary management system

Skills and competency based career can motivate and develop the potential development.

It reduces the stress of catching up with higher designations and provides opportunity to all

It enhances the internal communication.

Individuals can facilitate their career by assessing their skills and roles.

Competency based career planning helps to meet organizational goals, as it prepares the HR needed.

It nurtures future executives and manager

It encourages skills acquisition and leads to better retention.


Preservation/enhancement of external and internal corporate reputation Promoted culture of employee responsibility/ownership of ones own Career Management Promoted healthy/appropriate internal movement Provided tools and resources to redeployed employees which enhance his/her ability to achieve an appropriate job-match(skill, competency, interest, style) Dramatically reduces severance payments due to successful internal placement Elimination of outplacement/transition fees as a result of successful redeployment Reduced staffing(cost per hire) costs due to redeploying existing human resources Diminished re-training dollars by redeploying internal talent fully versed in your culture and protocols -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

*Helps  in  Developing curriculum for new training to advance in a career field; *Helps  in  Creating new job classifications that can provide additional “steps up” in a field; *Helps  in  Training workers to start Being more productive.

*Helps  in  Working with employers to articulate paths or skill standards for advancement where none existed previously; *Helps  in  Upgrading skills for low-skill workers; *Helps  in  Providing technical assistance to employers to demonstrate how to implement career pathways; *Helps  in  Creating new strategies for credentialing workers; *Helps  in  Building education and training benefits packages where they don’t already exist; *Helps  in  Investing in career counseling and mentoring programs for low-wage workers. =========================================================




The Career Planning Policy Our policy for career planning is a well thought out, planned process. Aim is to develop and prepare people for higher responsibilities. It assists them by identifying various roles they could undertake and skills they may need to develop in order to do full justice to their new role within the organization. At L&T Infotech, we place People first. In this knowledge industry, we empower our employees with the strength of knowledge and create a 'climate' that is conducive to learning and personal and professional growth. We are a People driven organization that helps it's employees gain a level of freedom that provides security, satisfaction and, most importantly, a sense of professional fulfillment. Recruitment and Selection at L&T Infotech: We believe in the maxim "Right-person-for-the-right-job" We believe in the phrase "catch-them-young" and hire a number of fresher as Software Engineer Trainees and Management Trainees from reputed Engineering and Management Institutions, impart extensive technical, behavioral and managerial training and create thoroughbred professionals out of them. Induction:

The new entrants - Fresher as well as experienced persons joining the organization, across all levels, attend Induction programs individually and/or as groups. The objective is to begin the process of integration of the incumbent with the organization and ensure smooth entry into the organization. This consists of inputs on the following: Company Values, Business Philosophy Corporate Culture Work Culture Quality Process Project Management Information on Business and Future Plans Information on Organization Structure Systems and Policies Performance Appraisal Emphasis on building lasting Relationships & Team Effectiveness: Team Development Workshops aimed at enhancing intra-team cohesion We believe that it helps the goal accomplishment when people are able to relate with one another and build lasting relationships & sense of belonging to the organization. We believe that it’s the teams of committed people who eventually deliver results. Intra-group cohesion in terms of shared understanding of goals and objectives, cooperation, and collaboration is given a priority. Job Rotation Job rotation at L&T Infotech is aimed at optimum utilization of the available skill sets across the organization. We believe that job rotation is a crucial process which helps individuals to enhance their technical, behavioral and managerial competence. At L&T Infotech, people are our greatest pride and resource. Our focus lies in bringing aboard some of the finest professionals in the software industry and providing them with opportunities that match their drive and ability. With one of the lowest attrition rates in the industry, L&T Infotech's people-force is inspired, committed, and thoroughly professional. If you have what it takes to become an integral part of an organization that's built and driven by people, then you are the person we are looking for. Simply access the "We Need You" section to post your resume on our site. It could be your first step towards getting closer to an organization full of self driven people. And closer to becoming a part of the collective people-energy that's L&T Infotech- "A software force that's driving relationships globally."

At L&T Infotech you are faced with a challenging Work Environment that is shared by a highly motivated group of over 7200 people who choose L&T Infotech because they believe that it's all happening here. We provide:

Opportunities for Entrepreneurship Freedom to inspire ideas and be inspired In-house training programs for personal and professional growth Infinite access to the latest technologies Opportunities to take on leadership roles early in your career Freedom to experiment and be innovative Compensation that is benchmarked with the leaders in the industry HR polices that are aimed to strike a balance between work and personal welfare Variable Compensation Schemes The compensation policy of L&T Infotech is designed to address the dual need of encouraging high performance amongst all it’s employees and at the same time aligning itself to the highly sensitive IT business scenario.

The total compensation package of an individual is made of fixed and variable components. These variable components are paid annually at different times of the year. The actual payment of the variable component is dependent on the individual’s performance and the company performance in the year under consideration.

The above compensation structure is guided by the principle of a strong emphasis on individual performance and at the same time encouraging a sense of participation and ownership for the company’s performance in any year. The compensation review exercise is conducted annually. This exercise seeks to align the company’s compensation levels to that of the market. Individual salaries are revised after taking inputs from various sources like performance appraisal ratings, relative performance vis--vis others in the same business unit and various other factors We Care...

We believe in employee centered approach and our HR policies and practices are aimed, mainly at, employee care.

We care for :

People's need for self expression and leisure time(E.g. Special Interest Groups plan, opportunities for putting up cultural show at the Bi-annual Awards ceremony, recreation facilities) Self-worth of people(Awards Plan, Motivation Plan) Collective excellence(CE's award for best managed project, Rolling trophy for SBU with best customer orientation) People development(Technical and behavioral training, Team building workshops. Library, Higher Study Plan) People's opinion(Communication meetings, open houses, climate surveys) People's need to know(L&T Infotech Voice, Real Time, News Flash) Policy Profile

The High Commitment Work Systems Policy :

As per our High Commitment Work Systems Policy, empowered and independent teams work with responsibility and accountability in an environment of openness. It increases employee involvement and develops a mature work culture. This in turn has a good bearing on the company helping it achieve goals and targets successfully in a competitive environment.

Performance Appraisal Policy

We appraise employee performance on an annual basis, giving people credit for their achievements and setting targets for the forthcoming year. We have developed a balanced policy that is both objective and holistic in its approach. Our HRD personnel facilitate the appraisal process and also train senior personnel in assessing individual performance. They resolve the areas of conflict and follow up on the outcomes of the appraisal.

Our Performance Appraisal System has several salient features :

An Opportunity for Self-review and Assessment A clear and equal focus on both, the End Results and the Process Identifying Training and Development needs Distribution of incentives in an objective, value based manner Recognition & Motivation We believe that our people are our greatest assets and that they are not just employees but strategic partners in our journey to achieve organizational objectives. In furtherance of our stated philosophy, our well-developed policies help us to recognize performance at work. Recognizing Individuals and Teams We understand the crucial role recognition plays in motivating employees to demonstrate superior performance. There are many ways in which we acknowledge and appreciate good performance - from a sincere sharing of an ‘I Appreciate’ Note for a specific job well done to granting honors through an established formal ‘Employee Award Plans’. So if you're an achiever with a passion for setting and attaining goals, you'll find many opportunities for being recognized at L&T Infotech. The ‘Employee Motivation’ Plan at L&T Infotech is another success story – an unique experiment to empower our line managers to recognize and give spot rewards to individuals and team in pursuit of excellence. Recognizing Collective Excellence In addition to the above, we have mechanisms to recognize collective excellence at an organization level, on an annual basis. One such initiative is our ‘CE’s Award for Best Managed Project’. The award recognizes excellence in the management of projects and encourages a competitive spirit amongst the Business Units to achieve better performance through higher standards in project management. To encourages and foster the growth of a customer-oriented culture in the organization and within a business unit in particular, the ‘Rolling Trophy for the SBU with Best Customer Orientation’ has been institutionalized. This award encourages a competitive spirit amongst the business units to achieve better performance through higher standards in customer service. Training for Development…

We believe in a learning organization, where learning is a continuous process. There is room for those driven by the zeal to surpass their peers and most importantly, themselves. We mix and match intensive training with equal thrust on job skills and behavioral development. Group therapies and seminars are organized to encourage professional rapport and keep employee morale running high. We realize the value that people add to our organization and formulate policies that take into consideration individual needs and benefits.

Some of the activities that make learning a continuous process at L&T Infotech are An extensive orientation-cum-technical training program for Software Engineer Trainee at our well-equipped Training Center Conduct Focused Management Development Programs at the premium Management Development Center Continuous skill up-gradation on new emerging technologies Behavioral Training Programs offered to enhance personal and professional effectiveness of our project groups viz. Customer orientation Team work Communication Self development We engage the best faculties in the field for conducting the programs. We also make use of training events offered by premium management institutions .


######################################################## 2A] . Discuss how organization development(OD) plan is formulated

Organization Development

Organization Development(OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment.

Organization Development(OD) is the process of improving organizations. The process is carefully planned and implemented to benefit the organization, its employees and its stakeholders. The client organization may be an entire company, public agency, non-profit organization, volunteer group - or a smaller part of a larger organization.

The change process supports improvement of the organization or group as a whole. The client and consultant work together to gather data, define issues and determine a suitable course of action. The organization is assessed to create an understanding of the current situation and to identify opportunities for change that will meet business objectives.

OD differs from traditional consulting because client involvement is encouraged throughout the entire process. The ways in which people communicate and work together are addressed concurrently with technical or procedural issues that need resolution.

Organizational development(OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. It encompasses a wide array of theories, processes, and activities, all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. Generally speaking, however, OD differs from traditional organizational change techniques in that it typically embraces a more holistic approach that is aimed at transforming thought and behavior throughout an entity. Definitions of OD abound, but they are all predicated on the notion of improving organizational performance through proactive activities and techniques. It is also worth noting that organizational development, though concerned with improving workforce performance, should not be mistaken for human resource development. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be more effective in accomplishing its desired goals,"  "It is distinguished from human resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within organizations, while OD focuses on developing the structures, systems, and processes within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness."


Organizational Development Basics

Although the field of OD is broad, it can be differentiated from other systems of organizational change by its emphasis on process rather than problems. Indeed, traditional group change systems have focused on identifying problems in an organization and then trying to alter the behavior that creates the problem.   OD initiatives focus on identifying the behavioral interactions and patterns that cause and sustain problems. Then, rather than simply changing isolated behaviors, OD efforts are aimed at creating a behaviorally healthy organization that will naturally anticipate and prevent(or quickly solve) problems.

OD programs usually share several basic characteristics. For instance, they are considered long-term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. In addition, OD stresses collaborative management, whereby managers and employees at different levels of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. OD also recognizes that every organization is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies—this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. Another common trait of OD programs is an emphasis on the value of teamwork and small groups. In fact, most OD systems use small teams—or even individuals—as a vehicle to implement broad organizational changes.

The catalyst—whether a group or individual—that facilitates the OD process is known as the "change agent." Change agents are often outside consultants with experience managing OD programs, although companies sometimes utilize inside managers. The advantage of bringing in outside OD consultants is that they often provide a different perspective and have a less biased view of the organization's problems and needs. The primary drawback associated with outside change agents is that they may lack an in-depth understanding of key issues particular to the company. In addition, outside change agents may have trouble securing the trust and cooperation of key players in the organization. For these reasons, some companies employ an external-internal team approach, which seeks to combine the advantages of internal and external change agents while minimizing the drawbacks associated with the two approaches. "Are change agents necessary for organizational development to take place?" "Once we recognize that organizational development involves substantial changes in how individuals think, believe, and act, we can appreciate the necessity of someone to play the role of change agent. But who should play the role? Existing managers? New managers? Or individuals hired specifically for that purpose? Depending upon the situation, any of these can be called upon to orchestrate the organizational development process. The point is that the role of the change agent is necessary for organizational development to occur."


how can they be more effective in the long term development of an organization. what are the limitations?"

Managing Change Through Organizational Development

Organization development initiatives do not automatically succeed. The benefits of effective OD programs are myriad, as many executives, managers, and business owners will attest. But OD interventions that are pursued in a sloppy, half-hearted, or otherwise faulty manner are far less likely to bring about meaningful change than those that have the full support of the people involved. Several conditions that had to be present if an OD intervention could have any meaningful chance of bringing about the desired change:

Ownership and all involved personnel needed to be genuinely and visibly committed to the effort. People involved in OD have to be informed in advance of the nature of the intervention and the nature of their involvement in it. The OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization; this is especially true of such areas as the evaluation and reward systems. The effort has to be directed by appropriate managers and guided by change agents(which, if used, must be competent). The intervention should be based on accurate diagnosis of organizational conditions. Owners and managers should show their commitment to OD at all stages of the effort, including the diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation. Evaluation is key to success, and should consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort. Owners and managers need to show employees how the OD effort relates to the organization's goals and overriding mission


The following ten FACTORS   ARE  USEFUL. 1.Be clear about what you are trying to accomplish. 2.Evaluators need good diagnostic skills to work on this task prior to any discussion of assessment. Good evaluation will also look for goals from various stakeholders as well as unintended consequences, but formal goals are a necessity, especially when the program is externally supported. The process is likely to be a cyclical one since goals are refined through evaluation of progress.

3.Link theory of the intervention to outcomes. Evaluators need to help  define theories of change that underlie their operations - that is, the relationships among their assumptions, resources, program activities and expected results. The evaluators can help the program staff determine how important these alliances are in producing the desired program outcomes, as well as monitor the resources and activities devoted to them. Explicating these theories of change, or logic models as they are sometimes called, is often a very useful formative evaluation task in itself since it helps identify gaps among resources, activities and outcomes. This is a first step toward building a shared understanding in the organization and provides a framework for dialogue about evaluation findings and continuous improvement of the project. This is a compelling need in nearly every organizational setting, and a skill that evaluation and OD professionals should share. 4.Setting the stage properly. It is important to clarify why the evaluation is being done at a particular point of time and how that information will be used. These issues need to be dealt with early on and revisited continually throughout an evaluation. The evaluator needs good brokering skills to work  interested parties to regularly clarify expectations about the purposes of evaluation. 5.Pay attention to stakeholders. It is important that key stakeholders are involved in the process - to determine the important questions that need to be addressed and how success will be measured. Evaluators can start by asking  stakeholders what challenges or dilemmas they are facing in their work. In this way, evaluation has a higher likelihood that the stakeholders will cooperate with the evaluation and that the results will be used.

6.Integrate evaluation into the program. The stakeholders  need to build in at the outset the expectation that evaluation should be done and also the resources to do it well. Too often, the thought for evaluation comes once a program is finished with the result that useful baseline data and resources are missing to make evaluation meaningful and reliable. 7.Integrate evaluation into daily work. Evaluation activities can be integrated into routine work such as assessing needs at  staff level, although the information processing demands on employees represent a significant challenge to keep in mind. The point here is to take advantage of relevant and accessible data rather than requiring additional work for information gathering. Evaluators who are sensitive to workload and workplace dynamics can be helpful in this process.

8.Identify just a few things to evaluate. Pick the fewest indicators that provide the most information about program assumptions, resources, activities and outcomes. Evaluators who are knowledgeable about information overload in organizations will obviously be helpful in this process, as will well developed theories of change to identify key information needs. 9.Coordinate evaluation reports with internal decision-making. Findings need to be presented on a timely basis to inform learning and action and throughout a program's life - not just at the end. Evaluators need skills in understanding organizational power, budgeting, decision-making and culture that will attune them to how and when findings can be useful. 10.Use evaluation as a process not simply as a report. Stakeholders  and  staff get more out of the evaluation process than its final report. Regular feedback and opportunities for varied interpretations of findings strengthen a program as well as any evaluation of it. Methods other than written reports, such as video, photos, and human-interest stories, can serve as effective communications tools within the program as well as with  stakeholders.

Do evaluation only when an organization is ready. Clear goals and theories of change are important for effective evaluation, but other conditions are also essential. As documented from the field of OD, evaluation is truly useful when there is a commitment to and resources for candid feedback. ===================================

Implementing OD Programs

OD efforts basically entail two groups of activities: [1] "action research" and [ 2 ]"interventions." 1. Action research is a process of systematically collecting data on a specific organization, feeding it back for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data. Data gathering techniques include everything from surveys and questionnaires to interviews, collages, drawings, and tests. The data is often evaluated and interpreted using advanced statistical analysis techniques.

Action research can be thought of as the diagnostic component of the OD process. But it also encompasses the intervention component, whereby the change agent uses action plans to intervene in the organization and make changes, as discussed below. In a continuous process, the results of actions are measured and evaluated and new action plans are devised to effect new changes. Thus, the intervention process can be considered a facet of action research.

2. OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to effect change in some facet of an organization. Numerous interventions have been developed over the years to address different problems or create various results. However, they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization through change. In general, organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of organizational change will employ a full range of interventions, including those designed to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. Entities attempting smaller changes will stop short of those goals, applying interventions targeted primarily toward operating policies, management structures, worker skills, and personnel policies. Typically, organization development programs will simultaneously integrate more than one of these interventions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Various OD interventions

Planned Change –

Many Specific Interventions

* The many types of interventions can

include a variety of specific practices

* Various specific practices are usually

highly integrated into action plans

* Practices include, eg, team building,

conflict management, training,

coaching, facilitating, organizational

analysis, organizational restructuring,


Types of Interventions Human process, eg:

* T-groups

* Process consultation

* Team building

* Search conference(a large-scale

intervention) Technostructural, eg:

* Work/job design

* Quality circles


* Restructuring Human resource management, eg:

* Performance management(employee)

* Employee wellness

* Reward systems

* Diversity management Strategic, eg:

* Organizational transformation

* Cultural change

* Self-designing organizations

* Strategic management




Profitability, productivity, morale and quality of work life are of concern to most organizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. There is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. Organizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas.

The work force has also changed. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. They want challenge, recognition, a sense of accomplishment, worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with their managers and co-workers. When these needs are not met, performance declines.

Today's customers demand continually improving quality, rapid product or service delivery; fast turn-around time on changes, competitive pricing and other features that are best achieved in complex environments by innovative organizational practices.

The effective organization must be able to meet today's and tomorrow's challenges. Adaptability and responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive.

There are seven characteristics of OD:

Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees .

Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together.

Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture.

Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.

Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.

Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change.

Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.








-org. learning




-e learning

-management  development

-career planning /development.



-performance management

etc etc


2B ] Describe the system of

training and organizational development of an organization you are familiar with. Briefly

describe the organization you are referring to.









=================================================== WHEN  YOU  DEVELOP  TRAINING  STRATEGY,  YOU  MUST REVIEW

-corporate mission statement -corporate objectives -corporate strategy. -HR  STRATEGY/ OBJECTIVES

Once you get their departmental requirements, HRM develops -training plans / programs/ procedures/ priorities ALL YOUR  TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT  PROGRAMS MUST  CREATE  IMPACT ON THE  BUSINESS , NOT JUST RIPPLES,










A  TRAINING  AND  DEVELOPMENT   Needs ANALYSIS  is a systematic exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These "things" are usually associated with organizational and/or individual performance . WHY design and conduct a Needs Assessment? We need to consider the benefits of any Human Resource Development(HRD) intervention before we just go and do it: What learning will be accomplished? What changes in behavior and performance are expected? Will we get them? What are the expected economic costs and benefits of any projected solutions? We are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes but not always the correct intervention. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for Human Resource Development. The largest expense for HRD programs, by far, is attributable to the time spent by the participants in training programs, career development, and/or organization development activities. ==================================================================== METHODS   OF  TRAINING  NEEDS  IDENTIFICATION

In addition  to  


there  are  other  methods  like

-ONE TO ONE INTERVIEWS [ in person / by telephone]

[ one to  one information  gathering]


[meetings of individuals who share an interest in the subject  exchange ]


[ information  gathering on paper]


[reviewing the  existing documents/ analysing]


[observing  / reviewing  people performing on the job]


[ assessment  of  line managers  of  their staff]


[ auditing  operation  process ]

-CUSTOMER  SATISFACTION  SURVEY [ source  of  inputs ]

-ORGANIZATIONAL  METHODS [ changes/ impact  on the  organization]


[changes / impact  on the  individual  jobs]


[ changes in industry characterisitics / impact on the  organization]


[data  collection  by  observation ]


[ reports /descriptions  of  things ]


[paper  pencil  dianostic tests  of  knowledge/opinions etc]


[ seeking advice  of  departmental  heads ]




-anticipated  demand for  products

-anticipated  demand  for  services

-local  labor  market  situation

-customer  requirements

-changes in  government  regulations

-changes in  competitive  situation


-plan  to  change  operational methods

-plan to  change technology

-organization  restructuring

-changes in  corporate  strategy

-changes in the  role  of  jobs.


Discuss how it is carried out in your organisation or an organisation which you are familiar with., Describe the organisation you are referring to. The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a -a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products

-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]

-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly

-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/

as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.

-the  company employs  about  235  people.

-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments




*finance/ administration

*human resource

*customer  service


*warehousing/  transportation



A  thorough and accurate  assessment of needs must precede the

design of a  training intervention so that it  can assist  managers

in improving  in the  areas  that  need it  most.


STEP 1.  Factors external  to the job and the culture surrounding the  job

are studied. These  include the values, practices, and heritage that are  characteristic of  the  industry , firm, division, department,

and  work unit.


STEP 2.  The jobs  are  studied:

-level  in organization.

-role within the  organization.

-technical features/ demands.


STEP 3.  Forecast of  changes in:

-factors  external to the  job.

-The demands  of  the  job.

-Challenge to  and demands  that  will be  made  on the  individuals  as they  receive  promotions, transfers, and  changes in assignments.



The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations and our people against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this: Current situation: We must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and abilities of our current and/or future employees. This analysis also should examine our organizational goals, climate, and internal and external constraints. Desired or necessary situation: We must identify the desired or necessary conditions for organizational and personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary job tasks/standards, as well as the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to accomplish these successfully. It is important that we identify the critical tasks necessary, and not just observe our current practices. We also must distinguish our actual needs from our perceived needs, our wants. The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives. What are we looking for? Here are some questions to ask, to determine where HRD may be useful in providing solutions:(3) Problems or deficits. Are there problems in the organization which might be solved by training or other HRD activities? Impending change. Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due to changes, such as new processes and equipment, outside competition, and/or changes in staffing? Opportunities. Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new technologies, training programs, consultants or suppliers? Strengths. How can we take advantage of our organizational strengths, as opposed to reacting to our weaknesses? Are there opportunities to apply HRD to these areas? New directions. Could we take a proactive approach, applying HRD to move our organizations to new levels of performance? For example, could team building and related activities help improve our productivity? Mandated training. Are there internal or external forces dictating that training and/or organization development will take place? Are there policies or management decisions which might dictate the implementation of some program? Are there governmental mandates to which we must comply? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The first step should have produced a large list of needs for training and development, career development, organization development, and/or other interventions. Now we must examine these in view of their importance to our organizational goals, realities, and constraints. We must determine if the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view of our organizational needs and requirements . For example(5): Cost-effectiveness: How does the cost of the problem compare to the cost of implementing a solution? In other words, we perform a cost-benefit analysis. Legal mandates: Are there laws requiring a solution?(For example, safety or regulatory compliance.) Executive pressure: Does top management expect a solution? Population: Are many people or key people involved? Customers: What influence is generated by customer specifications and expectations? If some of our needs are of relatively low importance, we would do better to devote our energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Now that we have prioritized and focused on critical organizational and personal needs, we will next identify specific problem areas and opportunities in our organization. We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions for every identified need:  

Are our people doing their jobs effectively? Do they know how to do their jobs? This will require detailed investigation and analysis of our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.



If people are doing their jobs effectively, perhaps we should leave well enough alone.("If it ain't broke, don't fix it.") However, some training and/or other interventions might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving our people and their performance into new directions. But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively: Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem. Organization development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building. ====================================================================================


Use multiple methods of Needs Assessment. To get a true picture, don't rely on one method. It is important to get a complete picture from many sources and viewpoints. Don't take some manager's word for what is needed. There are several basic Needs Assessment techniques. Use a combination of some of these, as appropriate:

questionnaires consultation with persons in key positions, and/or with specific knowledge interviews work samples =======================================================================

SUMMARY STEPS IN A NEEDS ANALYSIS: Perform a "gap" analysis to identify the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of your people, and the organizational and personal needs for HRD activities Identify your priorities and importance of possible activities Identify the causes of your performance problems and/or opportunities Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities. and finally: Compare the consequences if the program is or is not implemented Generate and communicate your recommendations for training and development, organization development, career development, and/or other interventions ============================================


TRAINING  STRATEGY Purpose  Training   strategy   provides a framework for comprehensive staff development opportunities for all staff who work for the organization, to support the organization's  mission, and to enable the  organization  to achieve  the  corporate objectives  and become a true learning institution for all who work  here. Principles Staff development is relevant to all staff and the whole person It is embedded in all working practice, throughout an individual's career Reflection, review, feedback and opportunities for learning should form an integral part of everyone's work experience TRAINING  STRATEGY  OUTLINES  INCLUDE

[this  will  vary with organizations, but  as a  broad guideline include ]

1. An  assessment  of the  current situation.

2. A  statement  of  purpose, outlining  what is to be  accomplished.

3.Identification  of  the  training  needs.

4. A  statement of planning  premises -significant asssumptions,     constraints, and parameters.

5. A  forecast statement  of   factors  that  might  help or hinder    the  end  results.

6. Desired  behaviors  are  specified.

7.Desired   competences are identified and   specified.

8.Knowledge,  skills,  and  characteristics  desired  are specified.

9. Description of the required training/development programmes.

10. Constraints like  time, budget and  participants  attitude are identified.

11.Participants' characteristics   are  identified / listed.

12. Training  objectives  are defined / listed.

13.Training  program  contents  are outlined.     -identifying  topic  areas to  be  covered.    -specific  concepts  are listed

14. Selection  of  instructor(s)      types of  specialists required.

15. Training   Teaching  materials,       kind of  materials  required.

16. Training  Methods  required.

17.  Evaluations methods to be  used.

18. Training  resources required.


Based  on  the  TNA,  can you / your  immediate  supervisor

-identify  the  programs  [ subject/contents]

-also  the  priority [ what  is  critical  /what is urgent/what is  important]


the  departmental  heads  the  priority  , as  they see  it.




Sample Outline [for the  total corporatewide  program]

1.Introduction [ purpose of this  program]

2. Scope of the Training Plan

3 .Organizational Entities

4.Responsibility/ management ownership of  the program.    [mention  T&D, department management etc]

5. Training/development Objectives

6. Training / development Policy

7. Corporate / Organizational Goals Supported

[  impact  on the  business]

8. Training  /  development   Benefits

9. Strengths and Areas  of  improvements  of the  Organization  [avoid  using  term  WEAKNESSES]  

10. How Training Needs Are Identified, Verified, and Prioritized

11. Training Needs To Be Addressed     [  knowledge / skills etc]

12. Course  /  by Job Category

HERE , PREPARE   A  MATRIX COURSES...............JOB CATEGORY>>>>sales !  PRORAMMING/customer service etc etc    V V  V TECHNICAL SUBJECTS [ IF APPLICABLE ]  

SOFTSKILLS , LIKE time management

supervisory skills development

etc etc






13. Course Descriptions      [ just  2/3  lines  for  each  selected ones]

14. Planned Course Development/Acquisition Strategy

15. Estimated Development and Acquisition Costs

16. Course Quality Standards

17. Planned Delivery Schedule

18.  staff   Selection and Enrollment Procedures

19. Training Evaluation and Tracking


when  selecting   the  modules, four  things  to remember







NOW  based  on  the  information,  can  you

-estimate  the  program time  for  each  program

-estimate  the   no of  time  each  program  has  to  be  run

-estimate  the  total  no.  of  hours  all  together

-estimate  who  is going  to  do it  [ take  logistics  into consideration]

-do  you need  external  trainers  , as  support

-how many / what  programs / when/where.



1. An  assessment  of the  current situation.

2. A  statement  of  purpose, outlining  what is to be  accomplished.

3.Identification  of  the  training  needs.

4. A  statement of planning  premises -significant asssumptions,     constraints, and parameters.

5. A  forecast statement  of   factors  that  might  help or hinder    the  end  results.

6. Desired  behaviors  are  specified.

7.Desired   competences are identified and   specified.

8.Knowledge,  skills,  and  characteristics  desired  are specified.

9. Constraints like  time, budget and  participants  attitude are identified.

10.Participants' characteristics   are  identified / listed.

11. Training  objectives  are defined / listed.

12.Training  program  contents  are outlined.     -identifying  topic  areas to  be  covered.    -specific  concepts  are listed    -key points  are  specified    -determining  the  emphasis  required on  each topic.    -sequencing  the  topics  into  a  logical  progression.    -establishing  a  learning  pace.

13. Selection  of  instructor(s)       -in terms  of  scholastic  records       -in  terms of  delivery  skills      -in terms  of  personality         etc etc

14. Physical  facilities      -location      -settings      -conference  room  [ size / layout /light/acoustics/ etc]      -seating  arrangements      -case study  rooms      etc

15. Conference  room  facilities      -equipments  required      -stationery required      -dining /  coffee  room  facilities      -writing  materials    etc  etc

16. Training   Teaching  materials      -training agenda      -trainer's  manual      -participants' manual      -case  studies      -role  plays       etc etc

17. Training  Methods       -lecture       -conference  method       -management  games       -case  study       -senstivity  training       -programed  instructions.

18.  Evaluations.

19. Training   schedule.

20. Training  Budget




















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