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Human Resource Development

Workers Compensation Law Discussion

Human Resource Development

Postby Kentaro » Thu Nov 10, 2016 10:37 am

Define professionalism and state the differences between profession and occupation. Describe the steps being taken  to make HRD as a profession in your oraganisation or any organization you are familiar with .Briefly describe the oraganisation you are referring to.

•Explain how HRD is being used for health and family welfare programmes in your area or any area you are aware of. Discuss the importance of developing the competencies of field workers in social and family welfare programmes
Posts: 39
Joined: Wed Feb 05, 2014 8:42 pm

Human Resource Development

Postby Powwaw » Fri Nov 11, 2016 6:38 am






1A] Define professionalism and state the differences between profession and occupation. What is Professionalism?

Professionalism is defined as the active demonstration of the traits of a professional. These traits include: knowledge and skills of the profession, commitment to self-improvement of skills and knowledge, service orientation, pride in the profession, covenantal relationship with client, creativity and innovation, conscience and trustworthiness, accountability for his or her work, ethically sound decision making and leadership. Professional development would then be the process in which a person develops these traits.


-Professionals are considered experts. -Professionals have a high degree of generalized and systematic knowledge with a theoretical base. -The primary orientation of professionals is to their public and/or community interest. -Professionals have a high degree of self-control of their behavior and are governed by a code of ethics. -The code of ethics is a statement of values. -The code ensures a high quality of service. -The code guarantees competency of membership, honor and integrity. -The code is a direct expression of the professions' principles of service orientation. -The code emphasizes no personal gain and protection of the client or patron. -The professional's system of rewards is primarily a set of symbols of work achievement. -There is a system of testing the competence of members. ----------------------------------------------------------

A profession is "a vocation requiring knowledge of some department of learning or science." A professional is one who follows "an occupation as a means of livelihood or gain," or one who is "engaged in one of the learned professions." Professionalism is exhibited by one of the "professional character, spirit or methods" or the "standing, practice, or methods of a professional as distinguished from an amateur." -----------------------------------------------------------------------


The basic premise of an occupation is a type of work or job that may be found in a number of different types of work or industries. Occupations focus on positions that require skills that may be used in a number of different work settings, allowing the individual with that skill set to move with relative ease from one industry to another as the need arises. Here are some examples of how occupations cover a great deal of employment ground, both with hourly jobs and with salaried careers. Many people claim an occupation that is involved with clerical services. The range of skills that are required for this type of occupation generally includes basic computer knowledge that includes familiarity with basic word processing programs. In addition, the ability to type at a relatively fast rate is very desirable. Attention to details, such as language, punctuation, and sentence structure is also very important to the success of a clerical employee. Organizational skills that allow the employee to effectively keep up with schedules, maintain a workable filing system for hard copy documents, and in general be an effective support to management round out the essentials for clerical employment. Since just about every company functioning in any industry would need someone with expertise in these areas, a person with solid clerical skills could easily find office work. This means an individual whose occupation was previously that of administrative assistant to a textile executive could easily move on to being an executive assistant to the manager of a telecommunications facility, with minimal industry education needed.

A profession is a vocation founded upon specialised educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain". professions involve the application of specialised knowledge of a subject, field, or science to fee-paying clientele. It is axiomatic that "professional activity involves systematic knowledge and proficiency. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1B] Describe the steps being taken to make HRD as a profession in your oraganisation or any organization you are familiar with .Briefly describe the oraganisation you are referring to.

HRD  is   described   as:

an omnivorous discipline, incorporating over the years almost any theory or practice that would serve the goal of learning in the context of work. Like an amoeba, it has ingested and taken nourishment from whatever it deemed expedient in the social and behavioural SCIENCES  , in learning theory and business. Three assumptions on which it is based:

1.HRD is based on the research and theories drawn from the field of adult education and is different from the learning that occurs in children. Learning is based on creating the arrmpriate circumstances in which adults can learn and thereby change behaviour.

2.   HRD is concerned with improved performance within the work environment. It is not concerned with improving people's health or their personal relations with their family.

3.   HRD utilizes the theories of change and how these relate to the organization. Change affects individuals, groups and the organization and HRD is predominantly concerned with the change of individuals. definition of HRD:

Human resource development is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups, collectives, and organisations through the development and application of learning?based interventions for the purpose of optimising human and organisational growth and effectiveness. HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness. The  people placed the following subjects under the umbrella HRD : training and development, organizational development, human resource planning, and career planning.


A number of strategic pressures have contributed to the increasing importance and Strategic role of HRD and these INCLUDE :

*accelerated rate of change; * focus on quality;

*globalization of business;

*increased flexibility and responsiveness of organizations;

*increased pressure to demonstrate the contribution of human resources;

*new competitive structures;

*new   technology.


Yet, today's business environment requires that HRD not only supports the business strategies or organisations, but that it assumes a pivotal role in the shaping of business strategy. ... As a primary means of sustaining an organisation's competitive edge, HRD serves a strategic role by assuring the competence of employees to meet the organisation's present performance demands. Along with meeting present organisational needs, HRD also serves a vital role in shaping strategy and enabling organisations to take full advantage of emergent business strategies.

Strategic HRD can be viewed as a proactive, system?wide intervention, with it linked to strategic planning and cultural change. This contrasts with the traditional view of training and development as consisting of reactive, piecemeal interventions in response to specific problems. HRD can only be strategic if it is incorporated into the overall corporate business strategy. It is in this way that the HRD function attains the status it needs to survive and to have a long term impact on overall business performance and respond to significant competitive and technological pressures.

. Strategic HRD enables:

•   the organization to respond to challenges and opportunities through the identification and delivery of HRD interventions;

•   individuals, supervisors, line managers and top managers to be informed of their roles and participate in HRD delivery;

•   management to have operational guidelines which explain the reasons for investment in HRD;

•   information to be disseminated which explains the training, education, development and learning opportunities available for employees;

•a policy statement to explicitly describe the relationship between the objectives of the organization and the HRD function;

•   a positive public relations awareness for new and potential employees to know that skills deficiencies will be provided for;

•   the continuous assessment of learning and development opportunities for its employees and thereby enabling them to advance their careers and support organizational growth;

•   clearly specified objectives and targets that enable the HRD function to be evaluated against strategic requirements;

•   policies which relate the HRD function to the other operating functions;

•   training, education, development and learning opportunities to have a coordinated role within a systematic process.



Technical Competencies

1. Adult Learning Understanding*

2. Career Development Theories and Techniques Understanding

3. Competency Identification Skill*

4. Computer Competence

5. Electronic Systems Skill

6. Facilities Skill

7. Objectives Preparation Skill*

8. Performance Observation Skill

9. Subject Matter Understanding

10. Training and Development Theories and Techniques Understanding

11. Research Skill

Business Competencies

12. Business Understanding*

13. Cost?benefit Analysis Skill

14. Delegation Skill

15. Industry Understanding

16. Organizational Behaviour Understanding*

17. Organizational Development Theories and Techniques Understanding

18. Organization Understanding

19. Project Management Skill

20. Records Management Skill

Interpersonal Competencies

21. Coaching Skill

22. Feedback Skill*

23. Group Process Skill

24. Negotiation Skill

25. Presentation Skill*

26. ing Skill*

27. Relationship Building Skill

28. Writing Skill*

Intellectual Competencies

29. Data Reduction Skill

30. Information Search Skill*

31. Intellectual Versatility* 32. Model Building Skill 33. Observing Skill* 34. Self?knowledge 35. Visioning Skill *core competency



-org. learning




-Training  evaluation

-e learning

-management  development

-career planning

-career development.



-performance management

-personal development



etc etc


THE HRD   HAS  BEEN   USED  IN   THIS   ORGANIZATION   IN  MANY  AREAS. The HRS   is  used  to  address the development of individuals and organizations. ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS -the first step. This sounds simple, but we are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes the correct intervention but not always. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for HRD -- implement the appropriate planning. This needs assessment and planning will lead to several possible ways to improve performance.(Of course, one of these is to do nothing! -- we may decide to focus on other activities with greater impact and greater value.) PROGRAM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION. We need to consider the benefits of any HRD intervention before we just go and do it: What learning will be accomplished? What changes in behavior and performance are expected? Will we get them? And of prime importance -- what is the expected economic cost/benefit of any projected solutions? TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT-- acquiring knowledge, developing competencies and skills, and adopting behaviors that improve performance in current jobs, including: adult learning theory and applications, instructional systems design, train-the-trainer programs, and instructional strategies and methods. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT -- the diagnosis and design of systems to assist an organization with planning change. OD activities include: change management, team building, learning organizations, management development, quality of work life, management by objectives, strategic planning, participative management. organizational restructuring, job redesign, job enrichment, centralization vs. decentralization, changes in the organization's reward structure, process consultation, executive development, action research, third party interventions, and more. CAREER DEVELOPMENT  -- activities and processes for mutual career planning and management between employees and organizations. Changes in our organizations(including downsizing, restructuring, and outsourcing) are resulting in more empowerment for employees. The responsibility for our own career development is downloaded to us.(Translation: career ladders are gone; career development is now the responsibility of the individual.) ORGANIZATION RESEARCH & PROGRAM EVALUATION -- an exploration of methods to evaluate, justify, and improve on HRD offerings. HRD can give you the tools you need to manage and operate your organizations. Everything -- production, management, marketing, sales, research & development, you-name-it -- everything may be more productive IF your people are sufficiently motivated, trained, informed, managed, utilized and empowered. The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a -a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products

-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]

-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly

-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/

as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.

-the  company employs  about  235  people.

-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments




*finance/ administration

*human resource

*customer  service


*warehousing/  transportation














2] Explain how HRD is being used for health and family welfare programmes in your area or any area you are aware of. Discuss the importance of developing the competencies of field workers in social and family welfare programmes

The  vision is to:

Promote a workplace culture of effectiveness that provides person and family centred practice

Our mission statement is to:

Provide a collaborative approach to practice that encourages people to question the way things are done with a desire to improve workplace culture and care for  individuals / families .

Value Statements

Promote an effective workplace environment through challenge and support to enable shared learning underpinned by a facilitative framework Respect the wealth of diversity within a team through recognising each persons individuality and uniqueness(ie person centredness) Foster shared leadership based on the principles of integrity advocacy, autonomy, accountability, participatory decision making and collaboration. Work value effective communication that is clear, concise, honest, informative, timely, respects diversity and supports collaboration Recognised that change is a slow process therefore support one another in the perseverance, innovation and risk taking, solution focused approach & dedication that this requires

Key Performance Indicators  are identified as:

To provide and enable work- based facilitated learning, where opportunities for learning are embedded in daily clinical activity. To be creative in the way in which education, research and practice is delivered that results in better health care for  individuals  and families To be open to adopting and promoting new models of care and work practices that will transcend traditional professional boundaries To maintain and develop skills, knowledge and expertise through participation in professional and personal development To build expertise in communication and share knowledge and skills with families,  and members of the community as well as other health practitioners To lead in advocating and implementing new work practices based on research evidence and professional craft knowledge & experience To participate in clinical teaching, education and research programs and share experiences to improve nursing and service delivery and the outcomes of that care To remain up to date with the latest practices, techniques and treatments available .

To achieve outcomes, identified through a process of shared vision and values, that have positive impact on the health care experience for all

Different work practices which promote learning


At least four key steps are involved in creating a strong learning" climate. They involve understanding and respecting the

adult learner and creating a positive consultant/client


1.Recognise that participants in your programme should

ultimately take their learning to their "real world", and that most

of the responsibility for making it work in the application

environment must be theirs .

2.Acknowledge specifically and at the beginning of your

programme, that the responsibility for programme success must be

shared ? that you have organised the information(experiences) to

respond as closely as possible to the needs of the group but that

each individual must modify as necessary to make the information

relevant and to apply it in the "real world".

Design, in other words, is a shared process, requiring that the


Analyse group needs. Find information. Organise information.

Present information. Facilitate learning.

But that the learner:

Analyse their own needs. Customise objectives to those needs.

Adjust the application environment to make it congenial to the new

behaviours. Apply the learning.

3.Design activities that encourage learners to clarify their

own objectives and that help them plan application.

4.Create an adult problem?solving climate in the "classroom" by

planning a design that allows you to interact with learners as a

counsellor/consultant would. Your design should allow you to:

Create a physical environment that encourages sharing and reduces

barriers between the educator and the learners.

Be empathic ? showing you understand their situation, needs,


Respect the learners and their attempts to contribute.

Be yourself ? without defensiveness, hidden agenda, or pseudo­

professionalism ? sharing yourself and your experiences when they

can illustrate ideas or help establish empathy.

Focus on the learner's needs and problems ? not on retro fitting


Confront and challenge ? but only after empathy and respect have

been established(this makes it less likely that learners will be


Such a climate encourages learners to feel cared for, safe,

understood, real, responsible and strong. It helps open dialogue

and analysis channels.

In short, along with the other steps it facilitates the motivation

to learn.



Knowledge Acquisition: Learning occurs when an organization acquires knowledge. Acquisition of declarative knowledge or facts and information is achieved by monitoring the environment, using information systems to store, manage, and retrieve information, carrying out research and development, carrying out education and training, patent watching, and bibliometrics . Learning occurs not only due to knowledge acquisition from outside the organization but also due to the rearrangement of existing knowledge, the revision of previous knowledge structures, and the building and revision of theories. Information Distribution: Information distribution refers to the process by which an organization shares information among its units and members, thereby promoting learning and producing new knowledge or understanding. Knowledge in the form of tacit know-how, letters, memos,informal conversations, and reports are captured and distributed.  A lot of learning and innovation takes place in informal "communities of practice". Very often, learning in an organization takes place by members sharing stories or anecdotes of actual work practice as opposed to what is mentioned in formal job descriptions or procedure manuals. Greater sharing or distribution of information leads to greater organizational learning. Information Interpretation: In order for information to be shared, such information must be interpreted. Information interpretation is the process by which distributed information is given one or more commonly understood meanings. Sense-making or the formation of meaning is called procedural knowledge . That individuals and groups have prior belief structures which shape their interpretation of information and thus the formation of meaning. These belief structures are stored as a rule-base or a profile which is automatically applied to any incoming information in order to form a meaningful knowledge that can be stored. The interaction between stored mental models and interpretation is critical to understanding how organizations learn. Greater learning occurs when more and more varied interpretations are developed. Organizational Memory: Organizational memory refers to the repository where knowledge is stored for future use. It is also called "corporate knowledge" or "corporate genetics" . Decision makers store and retrieve not only hard data or information but also "soft" information, that is, information with meaning. This soft or interpreted information can be in the form of tacit know-how, expertise, biases, experiences, lists of contacts, anecdotes, etc. Organizational memory plays a very critical role in organizational learning. Both the demonstratability and usability of learning depend on the effectiveness of the organization's memory. The major challenge for organizations exists in interpreting information and creating organizational memory that is easily accessible. ==================================================



helps the  learning / development  of  the  individuals.


too help  to  learn/ develop  individuals   with  potential.




Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility. Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence when learning new tasks  or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities. Job Engineering: Work design allows employees to see how the work methods, layout and handling procedures link together as well as the interaction between people and machines.


-a  good/ effective  induction  helps to   learn better/ faster

and  make  the  entry  to  the  company more  easy/warm.


-a  good/ effective  orientation helps to   learn better/ orientate faster

and  make  the  entry  to  the  job  position more  easier.


FIFTH  SET  OF  WORK PRACTICES. Practice Inclusivity

• Individual differences  with particular needs are acknowledged,

respected and valued

• Personal perceptions and attitudes about difference are examined and revised to

improve communication and professionalism

• Principles underpinning inclusivity are integrated into all work practices

• The training and/or assessment organisation’s access and equity policy is used to

guide work practices

• Individuals’ rights and confidentiality are respected


Promote and Respond to Diversity

• The ground rules for participation and behaviour with colleagues and clients are

established through a cooperative, agreed process

• Individuals are encouraged to express themselves and to contribute to the work

and learning environment

• Individuals are provided with opportunities to indicate specific needs to support

their participation in learning and work  CULTURE.

• Relevant research, guidelines and resources are accessed to support inclusivity

• Verbal and body language is sensitive to different cultures and backgrounds and

differences in physical and intellectual abilities


Develop and Implement Work Strategies to Support


• Documented resources to support and guide inclusive practices are identified and

used to inform work strategies

• Support persons are identified and included in the work and learning process

where appropriate and agreed to

• Relevant professional support services are identified and accessed, as


• Any physical environment support needs are acknowledged and incorporated into

work practices, where practicable and approved by appropriate personnel

• OHS issues associated with inclusivity are identified and addressed

• Inclusiveness is modelled in work performance


Promote a Culture of Learning

• Support and advice is provided to colleagues and clients to encourage new and

ongoing participation in learning opportunities

• The benefits of learning are explored with colleagues and clients

• Learning and competency achievement is recognised and rewarded in the work

and/or learning environment

• Opportunities to develop own and others generic skills are identified

• Multiple pathways to achieve own and others future learning goals are discussed


Monitor and Improve Work Practices

• Effective work practices to enhance inclusivity and a learning culture are identified

• Conscious actions are taken to modify and improve work practices

• Strategies and policies to support inclusivity are regularly reviewed as part of

continuous improvement processes

• Proposed changes to relevant strategies and policies are documented and

reported to higher management


Organizations to promote learning .

Organizational learning is increasingly becoming popular among organizations which are interested in increasing competitive advantage, innovativeness, and effectiveness.

A "learning organization" is a firm that purposefully constructs structures and strategies so as to enhance and maximize organizational learning . The concept of a learning organization is increasingly becoming popular since organizations want to be more adaptable to change. Learning is a dynamic concept and it emphasizes the continually changing nature of organizations. The focus is gradually shifting from individual learning to organizational learning. Just as learning is essential for the growth of individuals, it is equally important for organizations. Since individuals form the bulk of the organization, they must establish the necessary forms and processes to enable organizational learning in order to facilitate change. Organizational learning is more than the sum of the parts of individual learning . An organization does not lose out on its learning abilities when members leave the organization. Organizational learning contributes to organizational memory. Thus, learning systems not only influence immediate members but also future members due to the accumulation of histories, experiences, norms, and stories. Creating a learning organization is only half the solution to a challenging problem .



1.LEARNING  Broadens  the participants'  interests  /  awareness.

2. LEARNING  broadens  the  participants' business  perspectives. 3.LEARNING  Exposes the  participants  to new avenues  of  practices  thoughts.

4.LEARNING Prepares the  participants  for  greater  responsibility.

5.LEARNING  Permits the  participants  to  greater interaction  internal/external channels.

6.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare participants  for  promotions  within  the  organization.

7.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare the  participants    for  additional  responsibilities.

8.LEARNING  Helps to  provide  the  participants   with modern  practices/ techniques.

9.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants     to  share  ideas concepts  with  others.

10.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new technologies.

11.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new  processes.

12.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  culture. 13.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  OD programs. etc  etc.


LEARNING   Benefits the Organization

Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitude towards profit orientation

Improves job knowledge and skills at all levels in the organisation

Improves workforce morale

Helps people and organisational alignment

Enhances corporate image

Fosters authenticity, openness and trust

Improves boss-subordinate relationships

Aids Organisational development

Learns from the trainee

Helps prepare guidelines for work

Aids implementation of organisational policies

Helps predict future needs

Enhances decision making and problem solving

Enhances “promotion” probability

Aids replicating “success” factors

Enhances productivity

Optimizes resources

Enhances “learning orientation”

Improves labour-management relations

Enhances internal expertise / reduces dependence on consultants

Helps transition from Q1 to Q2

Helps conflict management

Enhances communication

Helps “change management”


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Joined: Thu Feb 06, 2014 10:06 pm

Human Resource Development

Postby Walthari » Tue Nov 15, 2016 8:29 am

Define professionalism and state the differences between profession and occupation. Describe the steps being taken  to make HRD as a profession in your oraganisation or any organization you are familiar with .Briefly describe the oraganisation you are referring to.

•Explain how HRD is being used for health and family welfare programmes in your area or any area you are aware of. Discuss the importance of developing the competencies of field workers in social and family welfare programmes
Posts: 36
Joined: Sat Jan 11, 2014 4:24 am

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