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Discuss anything relating to Consumer Law

Hr

Postby barnett » Fri Nov 18, 2016 10:31 pm

3)  What are the advantages & disadvantages of  the various external recruitment sources?

Q.4  A) ?The most efficient solution to the problems of interview validity is to do away with the interview & paper- &- pencil  measures.? Do you agree ? Explain.           B)  Many Managers describe performance appraisal as the responsibility that they like the least .

Why this is so? What could be done to improve the situation ?

Q.5  A) Suppose you are going to design a training program for newly hired Sales Associates for a retail chain. Results from the needed assessment indicated they would need training on     policies &  procedure , selling cloth to customers & customers complaints & returns . What learning policy would you like to build into the program? What training methods would you        like to choose for your training program? Explain your choices.        B) Why is it important to integrate career development program with other program in organization . For eg. performance appraisal, training, selection, compensation. Offer some        suggestions for how it can be done?

Q.6 A) Identify the critical variables related to the selection  of the most appropriate PFP System?        B  ) Why is it advantages for both the union & management to remain flexible during collection bargaining negotiations ?     C) Discuss recent approaches that have been used to improve work place safety & health ?
barnett
 
Posts: 44
Joined: Thu Mar 31, 2011 11:33 pm

Hr

Postby Churchyll » Sat Nov 19, 2016 11:10 am

SOM,

HERE  IS SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.

REGARDS

LEO LINGHAM

================================== 3) What are the advantages & disadvantages of the various external recruitment sources?

What is external recruitment?

This refers to the filling of job vacancies from outside the business(contrast with internal recruitment). Most businesses engage in external recruitment fairly frequently, particularly those that are growing strongly, or that operate in industries with high staff turnover.

How is it done?

There are several ways of looking for staff outside the business:

Employment / recruitment agencies

These businesses specialise in recruitment and selection. They often specialise in recruitment for specific sectors(e.g., finance, travel, secretarial). They usually provide a shortlist of candidates based on the people registered with the agency. They also supply temporary or interim employees. The main advantages with using an agency are the specialist skills they bring and the speed with which they normally provide candidates. They also reduce the administrative burden of recruitment.

-disadvantage : The cost is the high agency fees charged - often up to 30% of the first year wages of anyone employed.

Headhunters / Recruitment Consultancies

"Upmarket" recruitment agents who provide a more specialised approach to the recruitment of key employees and/or senior management. advanatage: They tend to "approach" individuals with a good reputation rather than rely on long lists of registered applicants - often using privileged industry contacts to draw up a short list. -disadvantge :The cost of using a headhunter or recruitment consultant is high.

Job centres

Government run agency - good for identifying local candidates for relatively straightforward jobs. advantage :The job centre service is free to employers and is most useful for advertising semi-skilled, clerical and manual jobs.

-disadvantage: only  low  level job  applicants.

Government Funded Training Schemes

There is a variety of government funded schemes that provide potential recruits, including the New Deal and Modern Apprenticeships. The advantage of these schemes is that government funding lowers the cost of employment and the business can get to know the employee before committing for the long-term. However, relatively few employment requirements are covered by these schemes.

Advertising

Probably the most common method. Advertising allows the employer to reach a wider audience. The choice of advertising media(e.g. national newspaper, internet, specialist magazine etc) depends on the requirement for the advert to reach a particular audience and, crucially, the advertising budget.

Advantages of external recruitment

-The main one being that a wider audience can be reached which increases the chance that the business will be able to recruit the skills it needs.

- UNLIMITED  the number of potential applicants for a job

- External candidates might be better suited / qualified for the job

-  they are  MORE competent

- by recruiting from outside, new perspectives and attitudes are brought in

-Outside people bring in new ideas -Larger pool of workers from which to find the best candidate -People have a wider range of experience -Candidate can bring in new methods/policies/syles which might be a good fit to the co.

-Diversity of candidates available for interviews

-An independent way of looking at how things are done in the co. Sometimes things are done because they've always been done like that. A new person may question this legitimately and bring about improvements

############################################################

Q.4 A) “The most efficient solution to the problems of interview validity is to do away with the interview & paper- &- pencil measures.” Do you agree ? Explain.

Semi-Structured Interview This technique can be used to obtain feedback and offers the interviewer the opportunity to explore an issue or service. It allows the interviewee to ex[press their opinions, concerns and feelings. The fact that it is semi-structured allows the conversation to flow where it needs to in order to deal with issues as opposed to cutting someone off because they stray from the topic.

This section will deal with questions such as:

What are the benefits of semi-structured interviews? What are the disadvantages of semi-structured interviews? What else needs to be considered? What are the benefits of semi-structured interviews? Obtains relevant information. The audience are specifically targeted.

Structured so as to allow comparisons. Gives the freedom to explore general views or opinions in more detail. Can use an external organisation so as to retain independence. Can be used for sensitive topics. Semi-Structured Menu       

What are the Disadvantages?

Interviewing skills are required. Need to meet sufficient people in order to make general comparisons.

Preparation must be carefully planned so as not to make the questions prescriptive or leading. Need to have the skills to analyse the data. Time consuming and resource intensive. You have to be able to ensure confidentiality. Semi-Structured Menu       

What else should be considered? Who is responsible for preparing the framework of the discussion? How will the interview be conducted - face-to-face or by telephone?

Who will conduct the interviews? How many people do you have to interview and have you allocated enough time? How do you plan to analyse and use the data? How will you feedback and present your findings? Semi-Structured Menu               

top    

Structured Interview This technique can be used to find out peoples views on predetermined topics. Very similar to the Semi-Structured interview although it does not facilitate an open discussion allowing for wider views to be integrated.

This section will deal with:

The benefits of the structured interview The disadvantages of this technique Other considerations menu       

Benefits of the Structured Interview Allows for a wide topic area to be looked at. Quick and cost effective in comparison with Semi-Structured Interview. Can use professional organisations to do the work - retains independence. Allows for easy data analysis due to the tick box style answers.

The Interviewees do not need training. Structured Menu       

The disadvantages of this technique Cannot be used to explore people's reasons for their views or feelings about the issues. Only allows the participant a minimal response. Responses from interviewees can be influenced by their age, gender, culture or their ethnicity. Expertise is required to design questionnaire. Can be costly to achieve a representative response. Other Considerations Who are you target group? How will your interviewees be selected?

How will the interviews be conducted? Where will the interviews take place and how will they be coordinated? How will data be analysed and what us will be made of it? ###############################################

B) Many Managers describe performance appraisal as the responsibility that they like the least .

Why this is so? What could be done to improve the situation ?

Why this is so

THERE   ARE  A  NUMBER  OF  REASONS  FOR  THIS SITUATION.

-lack  of understanding  of  the  importance  of  the  process.

-lack of  training  in  the  application of  the  process.

-lack  of  sufficient  support  in  the  implementation of the  programs.

-lack of  support in  the  field  of  training/development programs.

etc.

TO IMPROVE  THE   SITUATION.

-HR  must  support  the implementation of  the process.

-HR  should  train  the  managers  in  the  art  of  conducting

the  appraisals.

-HR  should  review  the  formats  used  in  the  appraisals.

-HR  should  assist  the  managers  in  the development

of the  individual  development  planning.

etc

################################################################

Q.5 A) Suppose you are going to design a training program for newly hired Sales Associates for a retail chain. Results from the needed assessment indicated they would need training on policies & procedure , selling cloth to customers & customers complaints & returns . What learning policy would you like to build into the program? What training methods would you like to choose for your training program? Explain your choices.

AS  THE  TRAINEES  ARE  ''NEW  RECRUITS''

THE LEARNING  POLICY  EMPHASIS  SHOULD BE

Know how: the ability to do something Know what: knowledge about facts Know why: knowledge about principle and laws Know who: knowledge about who knows what

To make it more operational and precise it is useful to distinguish between 3 types of policy learning: - Instrumental learning: Technical learning about PRODUCTS/PROCEDURES – about effects how the THEY  may be improved to achieve set goals; - Conceptual learning or problem learning: seeing things from a different evaluative viewpoint(in a ‘new light’); this is when the outlook on a ‘problematique’ changes it is called conceptual learning because it tends to be accompanied with the development or adoption of new concepts, principle and images.  

- Social learning: learning about values and other ‘higher-order’ properties such as a norms, responsibilities, goals, and the framing of issues in terms of causes and effects selected for attention .

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

THE  TRAINING  METHODS INVOLVE  A  COMBINATION.

1.did  he/she   distinguish   between the three selling situations(i.e. self-service,

self selection and full personal service)

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO  DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.did  he/she  identify   the features of full personal service.

[CLASSROOM   SESSIONS -LECTURES]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3.did  he/she    greet the   customers in an appropriate manner.

[[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.did  he/she   recognise  circumstances where customers should be allowed to browse.

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

5. did  he/she use the  active listening skills to identify specific customer needs

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.did  he/she   identify  the   various means of opening a sale.

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. did  he/she     select   the appropriate method of opening a sale based on active

listening to the consumer.

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. did  he/she     demonstrate  the  thorough product knowledge when selling i.e.

· benefits in use

· functions

· materials

· origins

· features

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

PLUS  WRITTEN  NOTES  FOR  READING ]

----------------------------------------------------------------

9. did  he/she  demonstrate   the features of a product

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.did  he/she    emphasis   the functions/features/benefits of a product

appropriate to the needs of a particular consumer(through

information gained by active listening)

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.did  he/she     identify  the  various categories of objections(e.g. excuses)

identify appropriate counteraction to various types of objections

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

PLUS  WRITTEN  NOTES]

---------------------------------------------------------

12. did  he/she     overcome  the  objections when dealing with personal sales

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.did  he/she    identify  circumstances where complementary sales are

appropriate

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.did  he/she    present options to customers for trading up

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

15.did  he/she    recognise buying signals and the appropriate moment to close a

sale

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

16.did  he/she    select and utilise the appropriate technique for closing a sale in

a given situation.

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -VIDEO DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

17.did  he/she    maintain courtesy throughout all stages of the sale

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

18. did  he/she   deal with customers in an ethical manner

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

19.did  he/she    implement the range of customer services e.g.

· returns policy

· delivery

· cash and carry

· after sales service

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

PLUS WRITTEN NOTES]

20.did  he/she    use a cash register competently(including use of Bar Codes)

-use the correct procedures when handling cash transactions

-deal with the following procedures when handling cash:

· refunds

· voids

· vouchers

· floats

· credit notes

*follow the correct procedures for validating cheques

*use the correct procedures for credit card transactions

*demonstrate secure procedures when handling payments.

[CLASSROOM   SESSION -DEMOS /LECTURES / ROLE  PLAYS.

PLUS WRITTEN NOTES]

######################################################

B) Why is it important to integrate career development program with other program in organization . For eg. performance appraisal, training, selection, compensation. Offer some suggestions for how it can be done?

AN  INTEGRATED   CAREER  PLANNING /DEVELOPMENT

IS  IMPORTANT  BECAUSE  IT BENEFITS  THE  INDIVIDUALS

AND  THE  ORGANIZATION.

GENERIC    Organizational  Systems  FOR  CAREER  PATHING

------------------------------------------

Selection & Retention Systems

*Recruitment

*Selection

*Pay to market  across industries

*Reward for  performance

WHAT  THIS  MEANS

"The Right People"  FOR  THE  ORGANIZATION

---------------------------------------------

Development

Systems

*In-house training

*External  education

*Self-directed  study

*Action learning

*Coaching

*Mentoring

*Job rotation

*Special  assignments

*Leadership  development

*Community  projects

*Assignment

WHAT  THIS  MEANS PEOPLE   "With The Right  Skills"

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance

Management

Systems

Performance

objectives

Performance

review and other

measures

Culture survey

Performance

feedback

Accountability for

performance

WHAT  THIS  MEANS

PEOPLE  "Doing The Right Things"

-------------------------------------------------------

Organizational

Systems

Roles and

responsibilities

Work

processes

Team-based

organization

Linked financial,

operational,

customer, and

employee

measures

WHAT  THIS  MEANS

PEOPLE  "In The Right  Environment"

=======================================

FOR  THE  SUCCESS  OF   SUCH   CAREER  DEVELOPMENT   PROGRAMS,

THE  FOLLOWING  APPROACH  WOULD  BE  USEFUL

SUCCESSION  PLANNING  COMMITTE [CEO/SENIOR MANGEMENT/HR]

SUCCESSION  PLAN

USE

Performance  appraisal-------------------------------potential  assessment

INDIVDUAL  PLANNING

CAREER   PLANNING

CAREER  DEVELOPMENT  PORGRAMS

personal development--training/development--career counseling--mentoring

==================================================

SUCCESSION  PLANNING  AND  CAREER  PLANNING.

SUCCESSION  planning  is an  element  of   career   management  process. It  is  an  outcome  of  

-corporate  strategic planning

-corporate  objectives

-corporate strategy.

Hence  you  need  to  review this  in detail. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Outline for Succession Planning Define where you currently are in your succession planning process.

What positions are you planning for? What key people have you designated for succeeding to higher positions? Where are they in their experience, education and training schedules? What has changed since your last review? What other candidates can you identify, either for future needs or to replace people who were in the process and either left your company or did not work out as expected? What has changed inside your company which might alter where you have been planning to go with your succession plan?

How have the current candidates performed to date? What jobs have changed, and how have they changed, since your last review? What new opportunities, technologies and other issues have emerged which may lead to change in the succession plan, its objectives or tactics? Define where you want your succession plan to take you, especially in light of your current strategic plan.

What will you look like in three to five years and what will your key people be doing then? What openings will you need to fill due to attrition, promotion or expansion? What new disciplines will the company require, and how will you fill them? How does your succession plan fit with your expectation of where your company, your markets and your internal situation will likely be going? Define how you will get from where you are today to what you want the company to look like at the end of your current planning horizon.

Who will be involved and what will each be doing? When will they start and end each part of the process and how will you judge their progress? What criteria will be used to determine each candidate’s ongoing fitness for his or her career path? Does each candidate offer and demonstrate continuing potential and progress toward meeting the requirements you have established? On what basis will you determine if someone is not progressing appropriately, and what can you do to help that person develop to the fullest extent? What alternatives can you offer those who are not meeting expectations? Once a plan is in place and people are in the process of being groomed for higher responsibilities and positions, where do you go from here? As indicated above, this is an ongoing process. You establish goals, select candidates, establish training and educational processes, initiate the process of selecting and training with each individual, and monitor developments. As the Simplified Strategic Planning process teaches, you continually update your status, review your assumptions about where you want to go and how you will get there, modify your strategies and the resulting actions/action plans, and continually feed back environmental developments. As your situation changes, you alter your objectives to match the appropriate strategies, make mid-course corrections, and continue your ongoing management processes as a part of the regular course of business. At each planning interval(usually annually), you will go through the entire process just as you go through your Strategic Planning process. You ask the same types of questions, make the same types of analyses as enunciated above, make whatever changes and modifications are indicated by the circumstances, update your goals and procedures, and proceed with the ongoing processes. Where you need additional talent, you perform appropriate searches, both inside and outside the company. You are basically limited by your resources, both human and capital, and your needs, and how far your “headlights” allow you to see into the future. Will you be totally correct? No, it is not likely you will get it totally right. But, you will get better as you do this process on a regular basis, and you will get better with time and repetition. You have the on-going advantage of being able to make mid-course corrections, so you shouldn’t go too far wrong.

Succession  Planning focus on a particular step in the succession-planning process. Develop a communication strategy Identify expected vacancies Determine critical positions Identify current and future competencies for positions Develop a recruitment strategy Create assessment and selection tools Supplement HR functions to include active recruiting and staffing Identify gaps in current employee and candidate competency levels Develop Individual Development Plans for employees Develop and implement coaching and mentoring programs Assist with leadership transition and development Develop an evaluation plan for succession management CAREER  PLANNING  APPROACH

Career planning is for core people as well as high?flyers

The philosophy upon which career plans are based refers not only to advancing careers to meet organizational and individual requirements, but also the need to maximize the potential of the people in the organization in terms of productivity and satisfaction under conditions of change, when development does not necessarily mean promotion.

career planning is for individuals as well as the organization

Career planning procedures are always based on what the organization needs. But they have to recognize that organizational needs will not be satisfied if individual needs are neglected. Career planning has to be concerned with the management of diversity.

Career plans must therefore recognize that:

*   members of the organization should receive recognition as individuals with unique needs, wants, and abilities;

*   individuals are more motivated by an organization that responds to their aspirations and needs;

*   individuals can grow, change and seek new directions if they are given the right opportunities, encouragement and guidance.

Career planning techniques

Career planning uses all the information generated by the succession plans, performance, and potential assessments and self?assessments to develop programs and procedures which are designed to implement career management policies, achieve succession planning objectives and generally improve motivation, commitment and performance. The procedures used are those concerned with:

0 personal development planning .

0 training and management development.

0 mentoring 0 career counseling In addition, career planning procedures may cater for the rising stars by 'fast tracking' them, that is, deliberately accelerating promotion and giving them opportunities to display and enlarge their talents. But these procedures should pay just as much, if not more, attention to those managers who are following the middle route of steady, albeit unspectacular, progression.

1. Career counseling

Performance management processes, should provide for counseling sessions between individuals and their managers. These sessions should give the former the opportunity to discuss their aspirations and the latter the chance to comment on them ? helpfully ? and, at a later stage, to put forward specific

career development proposals to be fed into the overall career management programs.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.Personal development planning

Personal development planning is carried out by individuals with guidance, encouragement and help from their managers/HRM as required. A personal development plan sets out the actions people propose to take to learn and to develop themselves. They take responsibility for formulating and implementing the plan, but they receive support from the organization and their managers in doing so. The purpose is to provide  a 'self?organized learning framework'. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. MANAGEMENT  DEVELOPMENT   

Formal approaches to management development

The formal approaches to management development include:

*   development on the job through coaching, counseling, monitoring and feedback by managers on a continuous basis associated with the use of performance management processes to identify and satisfy development needs, and with mentoring;

* development through work experience, which includes job rotation, job enlargement, taking part in project teams or task groups, 'action learning', and secondment outside the organization;

*formal training by means of internal or external courses; *structured self?development by following self?managed learning programs agreed as a personal development plan or learning contract with the manager or a management development adviser ? these may include guidance reading or the deliberate extension of knowledge or acquisition of new skills on the job.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mentoring

Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice which will help to develop the careers of the 'proteges' Allocated to them.

Mentoring is aimed at complementing learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. Mentoring also complements formal training by providing those who benefit from it with individual guidance from experienced managers who are 'wise in the ways of the organization'.

Mentors provide for the person or persons allocated to them :

advice in drawing up self?development programs or learning contracts; general help with learning programs; guidance on how to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to do a new job; advice on dealing with any administrative, technical or people problems individuals meet.

==================================================

Here’s what  I  typically  suggested  to companies that want to go though this process.

Define or validate the organization’s three-to five-year business strategy. This typically comes from the executive group and should be communicated broadly to the organization.

Determine the organization structure required to support the business strategy. For example, if the company is planning to grow by acquisition, the organization needs to be structured in such a way as to facilitate the integration of new divisions or business units.

Define job roles. Using the new organization structure, create specific job roles. The most important thing to remember in this step is to consider positions, not people. If you design positions around the capabilities of the current incumbents, not the business requirements, you’ll be setting yourself up for disappointment.

Define skills and competencies for each role. This step helps you to objectively determine the behaviors and knowledge required for successful performance in each role.

Place individuals into positions based on the skill and competency requirements. This also is a difficult step, because it forces you to take a hard look at individuals who may have been part of the organization for a long time. However, if the business requirements have changed, and have resulted in new skill and competency requirements, then the workforce you need will have changed concurrently.

Review compensation and other HR programs. Once the structure and roles have changed, it’s important to ensure that HR programs are aligned with the market. For example, if a position’s responsibilities change as a result of the organization assessment, then you should benchmark the new position’s compensation against the external market.

Communicate the changes. The effectiveness of your organization changes can be lost without the support of a strong communication and implementation program. People will want to know what is changing, why it’s changing, when it’s changing, etc., and it’s critical to never assume that people have the same perspective of the organization that management does. So over-communicate. Help people feel like they were part of the change process, not just affected by it. Get folks from the organization involved in some of the design decisions, and ask for their input along the way. It’s really the only way that a change like this will be sustainable.

Be flexible enough to change again soon. Change is never over, and new business challenges may force you to go through the same process again soon. As long as the organization understands why the changes are required, and they trust that management is steering the company in the right direction, you should be able to have a positive impact.

==========================================================

IN  CAREER  PATHING  YOU NEED  AN  '' INDIVIDUAL  DEVELOPMENT  PLAN''

FOR  EACH  INDIVIDUAL  SELECTED  FOR   THE  CAREER  PATHING  PROGRAM.

================================================================

Q.6 A) Identify the critical variables related to the selection of the most appropriate PFP System?

B) Why is it advantages for both the union & management to remain flexible during collection bargaining negotiations ?

C) Discuss recent approaches that have been used to improve work place safety & health ?

THIS QUESTION IS   ''INDIA''  RELATED,

AS  I  AM NOT  CLOSE  TO  THE  INDIAN  SCENE,

I  CANNOT  HELP YOU  THIS TIME

###################################################
Churchyll
 
Posts: 35
Joined: Wed Feb 12, 2014 10:22 am

Hr

Postby Maddox » Sun Nov 27, 2016 3:53 am

3)  What are the advantages & disadvantages of  the various external recruitment sources?

Q.4  A) ?The most efficient solution to the problems of interview validity is to do away with the interview & paper- &- pencil  measures.? Do you agree ? Explain.           B)  Many Managers describe performance appraisal as the responsibility that they like the least .

Why this is so? What could be done to improve the situation ?

Q.5  A) Suppose you are going to design a training program for newly hired Sales Associates for a retail chain. Results from the needed assessment indicated they would need training on     policies &  procedure , selling cloth to customers & customers complaints & returns . What learning policy would you like to build into the program? What training methods would you        like to choose for your training program? Explain your choices.        B) Why is it important to integrate career development program with other program in organization . For eg. performance appraisal, training, selection, compensation. Offer some        suggestions for how it can be done?

Q.6 A) Identify the critical variables related to the selection  of the most appropriate PFP System?        B  ) Why is it advantages for both the union & management to remain flexible during collection bargaining negotiations ?     C) Discuss recent approaches that have been used to improve work place safety & health ?
Maddox
 
Posts: 44
Joined: Fri Jan 03, 2014 4:06 am


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