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Postby michelangelo23 » Wed Nov 30, 2016 9:51 pm

Hello, would you answer the following questions.

1.   Explain the reasons for Group formation and describe different stages of Group development. Briefly discuss different characteristics of a team and their relevance in the present day functioning of the Organisations.

2.   What is Stress? Briefly discuss Organisational Stress and the Occurrence of Burnout. Describe Coping Strategies for Organisational Stress and Burnout. Give examples.

3.   Briefly discuss the need for transformational leadership. What are the aspects which have to be looked into organisations and to be dealt by transformational leaders in order to create a motivating vision? Illustrate.

4.   Explain the importance of Business ethics in organisations and discuss how ethical behavior can be promoted in organisations. Give examples.

5.   Why Diversity Management is important in today’s context? Discuss various dimensions of Diversity and how organisations can deal with Diversity.
Posts: 54
Joined: Thu Sep 26, 2013 12:05 am

Asking Answers.

Postby Glendale » Sat Dec 03, 2016 7:40 am




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I  will send  the balance  asap.




3.          Briefly discuss the need for transformational leadership. What are the aspects which have to be looked into organisations and to be dealt by transformational leaders in order to create a motivating vision? Illustrate.   Transformational Leadership   TRANSFORMATIONAL   LEADERSHIP    IS   AN  UNIQUE  PROCESS.   IT  IS UNIVERSAL  AND  DOES  NOT RELY   ON  ANY  INDIVIDUAL  CULTURE  GROUP.      Assumptions   People will follow a person who inspires them.   A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.   The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.   Style   Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.      Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker.      The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon.   In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision.      In parallel with the selling activity is seeking the way forward. Some Transformational Leaders know the way, and simply want others to follow them. Others do not have a ready strategy, but will happily lead the exploration of possible routes to the promised land.   The route forwards may not be obvious and may not be plotted in details, but with a clear vision, the direction will always be known. Thus finding the way forward can be an ongoing process of course correction, and the Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way. As long as they feel progress is being made, they will be happy.      The final stage is to remain up-front and central during the action. Transformational Leaders are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and enthusing.   It is their unswerving commitment as much as anything else that keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision can ever be achieved. If the people do not believe that they can succeed, then their efforts will flag. The Transformational Leader seeks to infect and reinfect their followers with a high level of commitment to the vision.   One of the methods the Transformational Leader uses to sustain motivation is in the use of ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their significance as indicators of real progress.   Overall, they balance their attention between action that creates progress and the mental state of their followers. Perhaps more than other approaches, they are people-oriented and believe that success comes first and last through deep and sustained commitment.   Discussion   Whilst the Transformational Leader seeks overtly to transform the organization, there is also a tacit promise to followers that they also will be transformed in some way, perhaps to be more like this amazing leader. In some respects, then, the followers are the product of the transformation.   Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a believe in themselves rather than a believe in others.   One of the traps of Transformational Leadership is that passion and confidence can easily be mistaken for truth and reality. Whilst it is true that great things have been achieved through enthusiastic leadership, it is also true that many passionate people have led the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm. Just because someone believes they are right, it does not mean they are right.   Paradoxically, the energy that gets people going can also cause them to give up. Transformational Leaders often have large amounts of enthusiasm which, if relentlessly applied, can wear out their followers.   Transformational Leaders also tend to see the big picture, but not the details, where the devil often lurks. If they do not have people to take care of this level of information, then they are usually doomed to fail.   Finally, Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies.   ======================================


4.          Explain the importance of Business ethics in organisations and discuss how ethical behavior can be promoted in organisations. Give examples.          


BUSINESS  Organizational ethics is a tool that shapes an organization as a community. In every organization, there is something that works well, which can serve as a foundation for significant progress toward a desired future. Organizational ethics pays special attention to the best of an organization's past and present to ignite its collective imagination of what might be. It builds from what is working well now toward where the organization and its stakeholders truly desire to go. Organizational ethics sees an organization as a community to be valued and explored. It strives to quicken and intensify existing individual capabilities and organizational capacities, extend their number and scope, organize them so that their conflicts will be harmonized, and mobilize their energies of will and intellect to bring them to self-realization. Organizational integrity is the end sought. It is a dynamic state of being and process; it both shapes and improves. It is about moving the organization toward its guiding image of the future. -----------------------------------------------------------------

What, then, is ethics? Ethics is two things. First, ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics, for example, refers to those standards that impose the reasonable obligations to refrain from rape, stealing, murder, assault, slander, and fraud. Ethical standards also include those that enjoin virtues of honesty, compassion, and loyalty. And, ethical standards include standards relating to rights, such as the right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy. Such standards are adequate standards of ethics because they are supported by consistent and well founded reasons. Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one's ethical standards. As mentioned above, feelings, laws, and social norms can deviate from what is ethical. So it is necessary to constantly examine one's standards to ensure that they are reasonable and well-founded. Ethics also means, then, the continuous effort of studying our own moral beliefs and our moral conduct, and striving to ensure that we, and the institutions we help to shape, live up to standards that are reasonable and solidly-based. A Framework for Thinking Ethically  in  decision  making

This  information  is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically. We all have an image of our better selves-of how we are when we act ethically or are "at our best." We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical government, or an ethical society should be. Ethics really has to do with all these levels-acting ethically as individuals, creating ethical organizations and governments, and making our society as a whole ethical in the way it treats everyone.

What is Ethics?

Simply stated, ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals, and so on. It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT:

1   Ethics is not the same as feelings. Feelings provide important information for our ethical choices. Some people have highly developed habits that make them feel bad when they do something wrong, but many people feel good even though they are doing something wrong. And often our feelings will tell us it is uncomfortable to do the right thing if it is hard. 2   Ethics is not religion. Many people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone. Most religions do advocate high ethical standards but sometimes do not address all the types of problems we face. 3   Ethics is not following the law. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical. Law can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have made it. Law can be a function of power alone and designed to serve the interests of narrow groups. Law may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems. 4   Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms. Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns(as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War). "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" is not a satisfactory ethical standard. 5   Ethics is not science. Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do. Science may provide an explanation for what humans are like. But ethics provides reasons for how humans ought to act. And just because something is scientifically or technologically possible, it may not be ethical to do it. -----------------------------------------------------------------

Why Identifying Ethical Standards is Hard

There are two fundamental problems in identifying the ethical standards we are to follow:

1. On what do we base our ethical standards?

2. How do those standards get applied to specific situations we face?

If our ethics are not based on feelings, religion, law, accepted social practice, or science, what are they based on? Many philosophers and ethicists have helped us answer this critical question. They have suggested at least five different sources of ethical standards we should use.

Five Sources of Ethical Standards

The Utilitarian Approach

Some ethicists emphasize that the ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm. The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected-customers, employees, shareholders, the community, and the environment. Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done.

The Rights Approach

Other philosophers and ethicists suggest that the ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. This approach starts from the belief that humans have a dignity based on their human nature per se or on their ability to choose freely what they do with their lives. On the basis of such dignity, they have a right to be treated as ends and not merely as means to other ends. The list of moral rights -including the rights to make one's own choices about what kind of life to lead, to be told the truth, not to be injured, to a degree of privacy, and so on-is widely debated; some now argue that non-humans have rights, too. Also, it is often said that rights imply duties-in particular, the duty to respect others' rights.

The Fairness or Justice Approach

Aristotle and other Greek philosophers have contributed the idea that all equals should be treated equally. Today we use this idea to say that ethical actions treat all human beings equally-or if unequally, then fairly based on some standard that is defensible. We pay people more based on their harder work or the greater amount that they contribute to an organization, and say that is fair. But there is a debate over CEO salaries that are hundreds of times larger than the pay of others; many ask whether the huge disparity is based on a defensible standard or whether it is the result of an imbalance of power and hence is unfair.

The Common Good Approach

The Greek philosophers have also contributed the notion that life in community is a good in itself and our actions should contribute to that life. This approach suggests that the interlocking relationships of society are the basis of ethical reasoning and that respect and compassion for all others-especially the vulnerable-are requirements of such reasoning. This approach also calls attention to the common conditions that are important to the welfare of everyone. This may be a system of laws, effective police and fire departments, health care, a public educational system, or even public recreational areas. The Virtue Approach

A very ancient approach to ethics is that ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of our humanity. These virtues are dispositions and habits that enable us to act according to the highest potential of our character and on behalf of values like truth and beauty. Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, tolerance, love, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence are all examples of virtues. Virtue ethics asks of any action, "What kind of person will I become if I do this?" or "Is this action consistent with my acting at my best?" Putting the Approaches Together

Each of the approaches helps us determine what standards of behavior can be considered ethical. There are still problems to be solved, however.

The first problem is that we may not agree on the content of some of these specific approaches. We may not all agree to the same set of human and civil rights.

We may not agree on what constitutes the common good. We may not even agree on what is a good and what is a harm.

The second problem is that the different approaches may not all answer the question "What is ethical?" in the same way. Nonetheless, each approach gives us important information with which to determine what is ethical in a particular circumstance. And much more often than not, the different approaches do lead to similar answers.


Making  BUSINESS Decisions

Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action. Having a method for ethical decision making is absolutely essential. When practiced regularly, the method becomes so familiar that we work through it automatically without consulting the specific steps. The more novel and difficult the ethical choice we face, the more we need to rely on discussion and dialogue with others about the dilemma. Only by careful exploration of the problem, aided by the insights and different perspectives of others, can we make good ethical choices in such situations.

We have found the following framework for ethical decision making a useful method for exploring ethical dilemmas and identifying ethical courses of action.

A Framework for Ethical Decision Making

Recognize an Ethical Issue

1. Is there something wrong personally, interpersonally, or socially? Could the conflict, the situation, or the decision be damaging to people or to the community?

2. Does the issue go beyond legal or institutional concerns? What does it do to people, who have dignity, rights, and hopes for a better life together?

Get the Facts

3. What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are unknown?

4. What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Do some have a greater stake because they have a special need or because we have special obligations to them?

5. What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? If you showed your list of options to someone you respect, what would that person say?

Evaluate Alternative Actions From Various Ethical Perspectives

6. Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm?

Utilitarian Approach: The ethical action is the one that will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms.

7. Even if not everyone gets all they want, will everyone's rights and dignity still be respected?

Rights Approach: The ethical action is the one that most dutifully respects the rights of all affected.

8. Which option is fair to all stakeholders?

Fairness or Justice Approach: The ethical action is the one that treats people equally, or if unequally, that treats people proportionately and fairly.

9. Which option would help all participate more fully in the life we share as a family, community, society?

Common Good Approach: The ethical action is the one that contributes most to the achievement of a quality common life together.

10. Would you want to become the sort of person who acts this way(e.g., a person of courage or compassion)?

Virtue Approach: The ethical action is the one that embodies the habits and values of humans at their best.

Make a Decision and Test It

11. Considering all these perspectives, which of the options is the right or best thing to do?

12. If you told someone you respect why you chose this option, what would that person say? If you had to explain your decision on television, would you be comfortable doing so?

Act, Then Reflect on the Decision Later

13. Implement your decision. How did it turn out for all concerned? If you had it to do over again, what would you do differently?




Ethics Filters

Until now we have been discussing a generic decision model similar to those taught in every business school and management training program. But our concern is not just decision making; it is ethical decision making.

The ethical component of the decision making process takes the form of a set of "filters". Their purpose is to separate the sought after elements from their containing environment.

At key steps in the process the decision maker can stop and run his/her considerations through these filters and thereby separate the ethical conations from the remainder of the decision. This ensures that the ethical issues imbedded in the decision can be given consideration.

In their academic form, the language for these filters is too complex and academic for most employees. In simplifying the process we risked losing some of the finer points but dramatically increased the utility of the ethics filters process.

To make it easy to understand and apply these ethics filters we have adapted to mnemonic word PLUS.

1   P = Policies

Is it consistent with my organization's policies, procedures and guidelines? 2   L= Legal

Is it acceptable under the applicable laws and regulations? 3   U = Universal

Does it conform to the universal principles/values my organization has adopted? 4   S= Self 5   Does it satisfy my personal definition of right, good and fair?

PLUS presumes effective communication with all employees so there is a common understanding of:

1   the organization's policies and procedures as they apply to the situation. 2   the applicable laws and regulations. 3   the agreed to set of "universal" values - in this case Empathy, Patience, Integrity, Courage(EPIC) 4   the individual's sense of right, fair and good springing from their personal values set.

PLUS also presumes a formal mechanism, provided by the organization, to allow employees access to a definitive interpretation of the policies, laws and universal values when their own knowledge of these PLUS factors is insufficient for them to make the decision with a high level of confidence.

The PLUS filters work as an integral part of steps 1, 3 and 6 of the decision making process. The decision maker applies the four PLUS filters to determine if the ethical component(s) of the decision are being surfaced/addressed/satisfied.

1   Step 1 2   Define the problem(PLUS surface the ethical issues) 3   Does the existing situation violate any of the PLUS considerations?

4   Step 2 5   Identify available alternative solutions to the problem

6   Step 3 7   Evaluate the identified alternatives(PLUS assess their ethical impact) 8   Will the alternative I am considering resolve the PLUS violations? 9   Will the alternative being considered create any new PLUS considerations? 10   Are the ethical trade-offs acceptable?

11   Step 4 12   Make the decision

13   Step 5 14   Implement the decision

15   Step 6 16   Evaluate the decision(PLUS surface any remaining/new ethical issues) 17   Does the resultant situation resolve the earlier PLUS considerations? 18   Are there any new PLUS considerations to be addressed?

The user should realize that the PLUS filters do not guarantee an ethical decision. They merely ensure that the ethical components of the situation will be surfaced so that they might be considered.

While PLUS suggests a process for assessing the ethical impact of a decision, ultimately whether or not the decision meets the ethical standards of the organization or the individual decision maker is a matter of personal responsibility. After all, ethics is about choices.




Principles of Ethics


Principle 1. the responsibilities of businesses: beyond

shareholders toward stakeholders.

Principle 2. the economic and social impact of

business: toward innovation, justice, and

world community

Principle 3. business behavior: beyond the letter of law

toward a spirit of trust.

Principle 4. respect for rules

Principle 5. support for multilateral trade

Principle 6. respect for the environment

Principle 7. avoidance of illicit operations

Principle 8. customers

Principle 9. employees

Principle 10. owners/investors

Principle 11. suppliers

Principle 12. competitors

Principle 13. communities

Principle 1. the responsibilities of businesses: beyond

shareholders toward stakeholdcrs

*The value of a business to society is the wealth and employment it

creates and the marketable products and services it provides to

consumers at a reasonable price commensurate with quality. To create

such value, a business must maintain its own economic health and

viability, but survival is not a sufficient goal.

*Businesses have a role to play in improving the lives of all their

customers, employees, and shareholders by sharing with them the

wealth they have created. Suppliers and competitors as well should

expect businesses to honor their obligations in a spirit of honesty and

fairness. As responsible citizens of the local, national, regional, and

global communities in which they operate, businesses share a part in

shaping the future of those communities.

Principle 2. the economic and social impact of

business: toward innovation, justice, and

world community

*Businesses established in foreign countries to develop, produce, or sell

should also contribute to the social advancement of those countries by

creating productive employment and helping to raise the purchasing

power of their citizens. Businesses also should contribute to human

rights, education, welfare, and vitalization of the countries in which

they operate.

*Businesses should contribute to economic and social development not

only in the countries in which they operate, but also in the world

community at large, through effective and prudent use of resources,

free, and fair competition, and emphasis upon innovation in

technology, production, methods, marketing, and communications.

Principle 3. business behavior: beyond the letter of law

toward a spirit of trust.

*While accepting the legitimacy of trade secrets, businesses should

recognize that sincerity, candor, truthfulness, the keeping of

promises, and transparency contribute not only to their own

credibility and stability but also to the smoothness and efficiency of  

business transactions, particularly on the international level.

Principle 4. respect for rules

*TO avoid trade friction and to promote freer trade, equal conditons for competition, and fair and equitable treatment for all partcipants.

All   businesses should respect international and domestic

rules. In addition, they should recognize that some behavior,

although legal, may still have adverse consequences.

Principle 5. support for multilateral trade

*Businesses should support the multilateral trade systems of

World Trade Organization and similar international

agreements. They should cooperate in efforts to promote the

progressive and judicious liberalization of trade, and to relax those

domestic measures that unreasonably hinder global commerce,

while giving due respect to national policy objectives.

Principle 6. respect for the environment

*A business should protect and, where possible, improve the

environment, promote sustainable development, and prevent the

wasteful use of natural resources.

Principle 7. avoidance of illicit operations

*A business should not participate in or condone bribery, money

laundering, or other corrupt practices; indeed, it should seek

cooperation with others to eliminate them. It should not trade in

arms or other materials used for terrorist activities, drug traffic, or

other organized crime.

Principle 8. customers

We believe in treating all customers with dignity, irrespective of

whether they purchase our products and services directly from us

or otherwise acquire them in the market. We therefore have a

responsibility to:

• provide our customers with the highest quality products and

services consistent with their requirements;

•   treat our customers fairly in all respects of our business

transactions, including a high level of service and remedies for their


•   make every effort to ensure that the health and !Wety of our

customers, as well as the quality of their environment, will be

sustained or enhanced by our products and services;

•   assure respect for human dignity in products offered, marketing,

and advertising; and respect the integrity of the culture of our


Principle 9. employees

*We believe in the dignity of every employee and in taking

employee interests seriously. We therefore have a responsibility


*provide jobs and compensation that improve worker's living


*provide work conditions that respect each employee's health and


*be honest in communications with employees and open in sharing

information, limited only by legal and competitive restraint;

*listen to and, where possible, act on employee suggestions, ideas,

requests, and complaints;

*engage in good faith negotiations when conflict arises;

*avoid discriminatory practices and guarantee equal treatment and

opportunity in areas such as gender, age, race, and religion;

*promote in the business itself the employment of differently abled

people in places of work where they can be genuinely useful;

*protect employees from avoidable injury and illness in the


*encourage and assist employees in developing relevant and

transferable skills and knowledge; and

*be sensitive to serious unemployment problems frequently associated

with business decisions, and work with the government, employee

groups, other agencies and each other in addressing these


Principle 10. owners/investors

We believe in honoring the trust our investors place in us. We

therefore have a responsibility to:

*apply professional and diligent management in order to secure a fair

and competitive return on our owners' investment;

*disclose relevant information to owners/investors subject only to

legal requirements and competitive constraints;

*conserve, protect, and increase the owners/investors' assets; and

*respect owners/investors' requests, suggestions, complaints, and

formal resolutions.

Principle 11. suppliers

Our relationship with suppliers and subcontractors must be based

mutual respect. We therefore have a responsibility to:

*seek fairness and truthfulness in all of our activities, including

pricing, licensing, and rights to sell;

*ensure that business activities are free from coercion and unnecessary


*foster long term stability in the supplier relationship in return

for value, quality, competitiveness, and liability;

*share information with suppliers and integrate them into our

planning processes;   •pay suppliers on time and in accordance with agreed terms of


*   seek, encourage, and prefer suppliers and subcontractors whose

employment practices respect human dignity.

Principle 12. competitors

We believe that fair economic competition is one of the basic

requirements for increasing the wealth of the nations and,

ultimately, for making possible the just distribution of goods and

services. We therefore have a responsibility to:

•   foster open markets for trade and investments;

•   promote competitive behavior that is socially and

environmentally beneficial and demonstrates mutual respect among


•   refrain from either seeking or participating in questionable

payments of favors totecure competitive advantages;

•   respect both tangible and intellectual property rights; and

•   refuse to acquire commercial information by dishonest or

unethical means, such as industrial espionage.

Principle 13. communities

We believe that as global corporate citizens, we can contribute to

such forces of reform and human rights as are at work in the

communities in which we operate. We therefore have a

responsibility in those communities to:

•   respect human rights and democratic institutions, and promote

them wherever practicable;

• recognize government's legitimate obligation to the society at

large and support public policies and practices that promote

human development through harmonious relations betweei

business and other segments;

• collaborate with those forces in the community dedicated raising

standards of health, education, workplace safety, economic well¬


• promote and stimulate sustainable development and play leading

role in preserving and enhancing the physical environment and

conserving the earth's resources;

•   support peace, security, diversity, and social integration"

•   respect the integrity of local cultures; •   be a good corporate citizen through charitable donations,

vocational and cultural contributions, and employee participating  in

community and civic affairs.


5.          Why Diversity Management is important in today’s context? Discuss various dimensions of Diversity and how organisations can deal with Diversity.

HOW  THE  Cultural diversity affect people at workgroup.

1.THROUGH  ---Multinational corporation(MNC). **A business firm that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country. **Have a total world view without allegiance to any one national home. **Have enormous economic power and impact. **Bring benefits and controversies to host countries. 2.THROUGH   ---Multicultural workforces and expatriates. **Styles of leadership, motivation, decision making, planning, organizing, and controlling vary from country to country. **Expatriates. -People who live and work abroad for extended periods of time. -Can be very costly for employers. -Progressive employers take supportive measures to maximize potential for expatriate success. 3.THROUGH  ---Ethical behavior across cultures. **Ethical challenges result from: -Cultural diversity. -Variations in governments and legal systems. **Prominent current issues. -Corruption and bribery. -Poor working conditions. -Child and prison labor. -Business support of repressive governments. -Sweatshops. 4.THROUGH  --- Advice regarding cultural relativism and ethical absolutism. **Multinational businesses should adopt core or threshold values that respect and protect fundamental human rights. **Beyond the threshold, businesses should adapt and tailor actions to respect the traditions, foundations, and needs of different cultures. WHAT  THE MANAGEMENT  CAN  DO

approaches to deal with diversity  for  satisfaction  and  performance.


Knowing  Culture

•??Cultural identity

- Cultural identity is relational: a person’s identity, of which culture is a part, is established in

relation to and in exchange with other people.

- Different components of a person’s identity will be emphasized depending on the

framework of interaction with others, e.g. the local, regional, national, or global levels.

•??Dynamism of cultures

- No culture is static, but changes over time.


Knowing  the  Realities of cultural diversity

•??Global level

- More than 225 official languages spoken around the world point to at least as many different

cultural groups.

•??Multicultural societies

- With the increasing intermixture of members of different cultural groups within(national)

societies, the exposure to different cultures is no longer limited to a few people who travel

abroad, but has become a fact of everyday life at all levels of society.


Knowing  the  Impacts of globalization

•??Increased awareness of cultural differences

- Globalization is not a new phenomenon, but more readily available information about other

cultures – through the media, communication technology, travel – increases the sensitivity

to cultural differences.

•??Homogenization of(popular) culture

- Certain cultural traits, in particular mass or popular culture, show a tendency of converging



Knowing   the  Reactions to globalization

•??Active participation

- Persons with the means – educational, financial, logistical – to actively engage in global

cultural exchange tend to perceive culture as a process and develop an increased receptivity

towards other cultures.

- Cultural diversity is perceived as an enrichment, not a threat.

•??Retreat into narrowly defined cultural identity



SUPPORTING  A Culture of dialogue

In order to actively participate in culturally diverse societies, every individual should be supported in

efforts to develop an attitude that is receptive to intercultural exchange, consisting of several



- Accurate information about the values, norms, historical experiences and cultural reality

underlying the words and actions of others serves to increase mutual understanding.


- While tolerance means not to interfere with others’ ways of living or thinking, respect

actually attaches a positive value to what one is or does, thus going beyond mere tolerance.

- This respect, of course, can be extended only if a person’s actions and ways of thinking do

not limit the rights and freedoms of other persons.

•??Search for unity in diversity

- As every person or social group reflects a multiplicity of traditions and cultures, all

individuals differ in some respects, but in other regards have much in common.

- The search for what one has in common with members of other cultures, religions, and

ethnic, social or political groups should always be part of intercultural exchange.

- The lack of appropriate means of exchange or self-expression can lead to an alienation from

the process of globalization and a retreat into a narrow sense of cultural identity.

- Often, this process is accompanied by a tendency to reinterpret and idealize one’s cultural

heritage, ignoring the cultural realities of past and present.

- Such a narrowly defined cultural identity can be the basis for a translation of various root

causes of conflict into cultural terms: “difference” is used as an excuse for intolerance.



Approaches to cultural diversity

•??Cultural relativism

- Implies that all cultures are closed systems: no cultural standard set by one culture can be

applied to other cultures.

- Shows tolerance towards other cultures, but denies cultural dynamics based on intercultural


•??Cultural absolutism

- Assumes that there is a hierarchy of cultures: “minority” cultures are expected to

subordinate to the dominant culture.

- If these show resistance, strong barriers are erected between the dominant and minority

cultures that tend to be re-enforced by both sides.

•??Cultural pluralism

- Accepts the diversity of cultural identities and expressions while at the same time

recognizing commonalities among cultures.

- Builds on the conviction that every individual has the capacity and should be given the

means to decide for herself/himself which cultural values to base their lives on.



Facilitating cultural pluralism

•??Creating the basis for informed choices

- When discussing cultural characteristics, it is important to differentiate between idealized

images of cultures and their actual expressions in real life, both with regard to one’s own and

to other cultures.

- An exploration and discussion of the values and norms, traditions and social conditions

actually at work in influencing worldviews in different societies today help to identify real

as opposed to perceived cultural differences.

•??Providing the means for participation

- Cultural pluralism is possible only if members of different cultural groups – within a local

community, a nation state, or on the global level – have equal chances to reflect their

preferences in political, social and economic decision-making.

- To meaningfully do so, every person has to be able to satisfy her or his basic needs – food,

shelter etc. This is where the promotion of cultural pluralism links to human development,

with both a necessary condition to attain the other.

- Every person should be able to gain access to all relevant information needed for effective

participation in society.



Awareness of the dynamism of cultures

- Keeping in mind that neither one’s own nor the culture of others are static lays the basis for

an open exchange that includes changing the perception of one’s own cultural values and


•??Readiness to transform

- The recognition of differences alone does not yet lead to mutual understanding, but has to be

accompanied by a genuine receptivity to other viewpoints.

- Ultimately, one should be prepared to transform one’s own world views by integrating other

perspectives into one’s ways of thinking.







*Language. **Perhaps the most visible aspect of culture. **Whorfian hypothesis — considers language as a major determinant of thinking. **Low-context cultures — the message is conveyed by the words used. **High-context cultures — words convey only a limited part of the message. 2: BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH *Time orientation. **Polychronic cultures. **Circular view of time. **No pressure for immediate action or performance. **Emphasis on the present. **Monochronic cultures. **Linear view of time. **Create pressure for action and performance. **Long-range goals and planning are important. 3. BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Use of space. **Proxemics. **The study of how people use space to communicate. **Reveals important cultural differences. **Concept of personal space varies across cultures. **Space is arranged differently in different cultures. 4.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH *Religion. **A major element of culture. **Can be a very visible aspect of culture. **Influences codes of ethics and moral behavior. **Influences conduct of economic matters. 5.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH   

*Values and national culture. **Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes. **Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: **Power distance. **Uncertainty avoidance. **Individualism-collectivism. **Masculinity-femininity. **Long-term/short-term orientation. 6.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH *Power distance. **The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members. **Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations. **Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia. **Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden.  

7.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH *Uncertainty avoidance. **The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity. **Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations. **Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France. **Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong. 8.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH *Individualism-collectivism. **The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests. **Preferences for working individually or in groups. **Example of an individualistic culture — United States. **Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico. 9.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Masculinity-femininity. **The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. **Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships. **Example of a masculine culture — Japan. **Example of a feminine culture — Thailand. 10.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Long-term/short-term orientation. **The tendency of a culture to emphasize future-oriented values versus present-oriented values. **Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons. **Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea. **Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States. 11.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*cultural differences helps in dealing with parochialism and ethnocentrism. **Parochialism — assuming that the ways of one’s own culture are the only ways of doing things. **Ethnocentrism — assuming that the ways of one’s culture are the best ways of doing things. 12.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people. **Universalism versus particularism. -Relative emphasis on rules and consistency, or on relationships and flexibility. **Individualism versus collectivism. -Relative emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility, or on group interests and consensus. 12. BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH   

*Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people .

**Neutral versus affective. -Relative emphasis on objectivity and detachment, or on emotion and expressed feelings. **Specific versus diffuse. -Relative emphasis on focused and narrow involvement, or on involvement with the whole person. 13.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people . **Achievement versus prescription. **Relative emphasis on performance-based and earned status, or on ascribed status. 14.BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Cultural differences in attitudes toward time. **Sequential view of time. -Time is a passing series of events. **Synchronic view of time. -Time consists of an interrelated past, present, and future. 15. BY  UNDERSTANDING   AND  MANAGING   WITH  

*Cultural differences in attitudes toward the environment. **Inner-directed cultures. -Members view themselves as separate from nature and believe they can control it. **Outer-directed cultures. -Members view themselves as part of nature and believe they must go along with it. #######################################  
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Asking Answers.

Postby MacArthur » Sat Dec 03, 2016 3:39 pm

Hello, would you answer the following questions.

1.   Explain the reasons for Group formation and describe different stages of Group development. Briefly discuss different characteristics of a team and their relevance in the present day functioning of the Organisations.

2.   What is Stress? Briefly discuss Organisational Stress and the Occurrence of Burnout. Describe Coping Strategies for Organisational Stress and Burnout. Give examples.

3.   Briefly discuss the need for transformational leadership. What are the aspects which have to be looked into organisations and to be dealt by transformational leaders in order to create a motivating vision? Illustrate.

4.   Explain the importance of Business ethics in organisations and discuss how ethical behavior can be promoted in organisations. Give examples.

5.   Why Diversity Management is important in today’s context? Discuss various dimensions of Diversity and how organisations can deal with Diversity.
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